ARGENTINA

 

President: Mauricio Macri (2015)

Land area: 1,056,636 sq mi (2,736,690 sq km); total area: 1,068,296 sq mi (2,766,890 sq km)

Population (2014 est.): 43,024,374 (growth rate: .95%); birth rate: 16.88/1000; infant mortality rate: 9.962/1000; life expectancy: 77.51

Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Buenos Aires, 13.528 million

Other large cities: Córdoba, 1.556 million; Rosario 1.283 million; Mendoza 957,000; San Miguel de Tucuman 868,000; La Plata 759,000 (2011)

Monetary unit: Pes

主席:Mauricio Macri(2015)

土地面積:1,056,636平方英里(2,736,690平方公里); 總面積:1,068,296平方英里(2,766,890平方公里)

人口(2014年度):43024374人(增長率:95%); 出生率:16.88 / 1000; 嬰兒死亡率:9.962 / 1000; 預期壽命:77.51

首都和最大城市(2011年):布宜諾斯艾利斯,1352.8萬

其他大城市:科爾多瓦,155.6萬; 羅薩里奧128.3萬; 門多薩957,000; San Miguel de Tucuman 868,000; 拉普拉塔759,000(2011)

貨幣單位:比索

Second in South America only to Brazil in size and population, Argentina is a plain, rising from the Atlantic to the Chilean border and the towering Andes peaks. Aconcagua (22,834 ft, 6,960 m) is the highest peak in the world outside Asia. Argentina is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay on the north, and by Uruguay and Brazil on the east. The northern area is the swampy and partly wooded Gran Chaco, bordering Bolivia and Paraguay. South of that are the rolling, fertile Pampas, which are rich in agriculture and sheep- and cattle-grazing and support most of the population. Further south is Patagonia, a region of cool, arid steppes with some wooded and fertile sections.
678/5000
其次在南美洲,只有巴西的規模和人口,阿根廷是一個平原,從大西洋向智利邊界和高聳的安第斯山脈崛起。 阿空加瓜(22,834英尺,6960米)是亞洲以外世界最高峰。 阿根廷北部與玻利維亞和巴拉圭接壤,東部與烏拉圭和巴西接壤。 北部地區是與玻利維亞和巴拉圭接壤的沼澤和部分樹木繁茂的大查科。 南面是滾滾而肥沃的南美大草原,這裡有豐富的農業,牧羊和放牧,並支持大部分人口。 再往南是巴塔哥尼亞(Patagonia),那裡有一些涼爽,乾旱的大草原,有一些樹木繁茂,肥沃的地方。

Argentina comprises a varied blend of many European cultures. The city Buenos Aires and many other cities are the harbor for several ethnic clusters that enrich the social as well cultural scenario of Argentina. A touch of African and Amerindian cultures can also be seen. Here a description of various cultural aspects of Argentina.

The Roman Catholic religion permeates the life of about 93% of the total number of people residing in Argentina according to the data obtained through analysis. In spite of not having obtained the official status, this religion is most commonly followed. Apart from this, the evangelical consisting of about 3.5 million and protestant forms of Christianity also have followers who form a part of the population. About 1.5% of the followers belong to the Islamic community. Also, about 330,300 people constitute to form a large community that has association with the Mormon Church. A small Jewish community also exists in Argentina constituting a 2% of the dwellers.

Spanish is the prominent and widely spoken language in Argentina. Other than Spanish there are various ethnic languages that prevail due to the existence of diverse communities formed by the populace of cultural groups that came from the European countries. For instance, the people residing in the northeastern region comprising Misiones and Corrientes use Guarani language. The language of the Bolivian immigrants is Aymara. The northwestern region is dominated by Quichua language. However, the popular trend is that of speaking the primitive Spanish language that is influencing almost all the societies in Argentina.

The most illustrious painter of Argentina, Oscar Agustin Alejandro has charmed numerous people with the unconventional watercolor trend. Other than him, there are numerous world-renowned artists including Antonio Berni, Candido Lopez, Guillermo Kuitca and many others. When it comes to the carving of sculptures, artists like Leon Ferrari, Ciruelo and Loci Fontana come to mind. In the city of La Boca and Buenos Aires, the fame of the Painter Benito Quinquela Martin was really widespread.

Music
The most hip and eminent music of Argentina is Tango that has over a period of time incorporated the rhythm of Milonga dance of Argentina into it. This tango music flourished especially in the period between 1930 and 1950.
Literature
Argentina gave birth to many prolific writers such as Adolfo Bioy Casares, Jorger Luis Borges and Julio Cortazar. These writers of the 20th century have succeeded in obtaining worldwide recognition.

阿根廷包括丰盛的融合许多欧洲文化。布宜诺斯艾利斯市和其他许多城市是海港,丰富阿根廷的社会和文化情景几个种族集群。触摸非洲和美洲印第安人的文化也可以看出。这里的阿根廷各种文化方面的描述。

罗马天主教的宗教渗透的约93%居住在阿根廷根据通过分析获得的数据一共有多少人的生命。尽管未取得官方地位的,这个宗教是最常见的后面。除此之外,包括约350万和基督教新教的形式的福音派也有谁构成了人口的一部分的追随者。约1.5%的追随者属于伊斯兰社会。此外,约330,300人构成,形成一个大型社区,与摩门教的关联。小犹太社区也存在于阿根廷构成居民的2%。

西班牙语是阿根廷著名的和广泛使用的语言。除西班牙还有一些为准,由于受到文化群体的民众认为来自欧洲国家形成不同的社区的存在,各民族的语言。例如,居住在米西奥内斯包括科连特斯和东北地区的人用瓜拉尼语。玻利维亚移民的语言是艾马拉。西北地区是克丘亚语为主。然而,流行的趋势是,说是影响了几乎所有在阿根廷社会中的原始西班牙语的。

阿根廷最杰出的画家,奥斯卡奥古斯丁亚历杭德罗迷住了无数人的非传统水彩画的趋势。除了他,还有众多世界知名艺术家,包括安东尼奥·贝尔尼,坎迪多·洛佩斯,吉列尔莫Kuitca和其他许多人。当涉及到雕塑的雕刻,像莱昂法拉利,Ciruelo和基因座丰塔纳艺术家浮现在脑海中。在城市博卡和布宜诺斯艾利斯,画家贝尼托金克拉马丁的成名真的很普遍。

音乐
最臀部阿根廷和杰出的音乐是探戈,有一段时间纳入阿根廷的舞会舞蹈的节奏进去。这探戈音乐蓬勃发展,特别在1930年和1950年之间的时期。
文学
阿根廷催生了许多多产作家,如阿道夫Bioy卡萨雷斯,Jorger·路易斯·博尔赫斯和胡利奥·科塔萨尔。进入20世纪,这些作家都成功地获得了全世界的认可。

World Heritages of Argentina

Los Glaciares National Park
Los Glaciares National Park is in the Austral Andes of southwest Argentina, near the Chilean border. Its many glaciers include Perito Moreno, best known for the dramatic icefalls from its front wall, into Lake Argentino. In the north, Mount Fitz Roy’s jagged peak rises above the mountain town of El Chaltén and Lake Viedma. The park is home to many birds, such as condors and black-chested buzzard eagles

San Ignacio Miní
San Ignacio Miní was one of the many missions founded in 1632, in Argentina, by the Jesuits in what the colonial Spaniards called the Province of Paraguay of the Americas during the Spanish colonial period.

Santa Ana, Misiones
Santa Ana is a town and municipality in Misiones Province in north-eastern Argentina.

Nuestra Señora de Loreto
Reducción de Nuestra Señora de Loreto, founded in 1610, was the first reductions established by the Jesuits in the Province of Paraguay in the Americas during the Spanish colonial period.

Iguazú National Park
Iguazú National Park covers an area of subtropical rainforest in Argentina’s Misiones province, on the border with Brazil. Within the park on the Iguazú River, the renowned Iguazú Falls encompasses many separate cascades, including the iconic Garganta del Diablo or “Devil’s Throat.” The surrounding park features diverse wildlife including coatis, jaguars and toucans, plus trails and viewing platforms.

Cueva de las Manos
Cueva de las Manos is a cave or a series of caves located in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 163 km south of the town of Perito Moreno. It is famous for the paintings of hands. The art in the cave dates from 13,000 to 9,000 years ago.

Valdes Peninsula
Península Valdés is a Patagonian nature reserve on the coast of Argentina. It’s known for the marine animals inhabiting its surrounding beaches and waters, such as whales, sea lions and elephant seals. On the peninsula’s west is the village and beach of Puerto Pirámides, once a salt-mining port. Beaches nearby include Los Molinos, with an abandoned windmill, and Las Cuevas, named after the caves in its low cliffs.

Ischigualasto provincial park
Ischigualasto Provincial Park, also called Valle de la Luna, is in northwest Argentina. Its moonlike desert landscapes contain striking rock formations in areas like the “Painted Valley” and the “Bowling Field.” Dinosaur fossils from the Triassic Period are displayed in the park's museum. Trails run up Cerro Morado, a mountain with views over the valley. Guanacos, a llama-like animal, are common in the park.

Talampaya National Park
Talampaya National Park is a national park located in the east/centre of La Rioja Province, Argentina. It was designated a provincial reserve in 1975, a national park in 1997, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000.

Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba
The Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba are a former Jesuit reduction built by missionaries in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, named a World Heritage Site in 2000.

Quebrada de Humahuaca
Quebrada de Humahuaca is a narrow mountain valley in northern Argentina. It's known for its dramatic rock formations and hills, and its indigenous Quechuan villages. In the south, the rocky, multihued slopes of the Seven Colors Hill rise above the Spanish colonial village of Purmamarca. The village is known for the centuries-old Santa Rosa de Lima church and surrounding desert landscapes.

Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System
This site is an extensive Inca communication, trade and defence network of roads covering 30,000 km. Constructed by the Incas over several centuries and partly based on pre-Inca infrastructure, this extraordinary network through one of the world’s most extreme geographical terrains linked the snow-capped peaks of the Andes – at an altitude of more than 6,000 m – to the coast, running through hot rainforests, fertile valleys and absolute deserts. It reached its maximum expansion in the 15th century, when it spread across the length and breadth of the Andes. The Qhapac Ñan, Andean Road System includes 273 component sites spread over more than 6,000 km that were selected to highlight the social, political, architectural and engineering achievements of the network, along with its associated infrastructure for trade, accommodation and storage, as well as sites of religious significance.

The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement
Chosen from the work of Le Corbusier, the 17 sites comprising this transnational serial property are spread over seven countries and are a testimonial to the invention of a new architectural language that made a break with the past. They were built over a period of a half-century, in the course of what Le Corbusier described as “patient research”. The Complexe du Capitole in Chandigarh (India), the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo (Japan), the House of Dr Curutchet in La Plata (Argentina) and the Unité d’habitation in Marseille (France) reflect the solutions that the Modern Movement sought to apply during the 20th century to the challenges of inventing new architectural techniques to respond to the needs of society. These masterpieces of creative genius also attest to the internationalization of architectural practice across the planet.

Los Alerces National Park
The Los Alerces National Park is a national park in Chubut Province, Argentina, some 30 miles from Esquel. It is a park of 2,630 square kilometres along the border with Chile, best known for the alerce trees from which the park takes its name.

 

BOLIVIA

 

Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America. Bordering Peru and Chile to the west, Argentina and Paraguay to the south, and Brazil to the north and east, it is divided into nine political–administrative units called departments. There are three major geographic–ecological landscapes: the high and cold plateau ( altiplano ) between the eastern and western Andean mountain chains (Cordillera Oriental and Cordillera Occidental) at 12,000 to 14,000 feet (4,000 to 4,500 meters) above sea level, the intermontane valleys ( valles ) in the easternmost part of the Cordillera Oriental at an average of 8,500 feet (2,600 meters) elevation, and the vast lowlands (Oriente) beyond the eastern flanks of the Cordillera Oriental. The sparsely populated Oriente—swamp, grasslands, plains, and tropical and subtropical forest—constitutes over 70 percent of the country.

Demography. Historically, Bolivia has been predominantly rural, with most of its Quechua- and Aymara-speaking peasants living in highland communities. The 1992 census confirmed that 80 percent of the people live in the highlands and noted increasing rural to urban migration. In 1992, the population was 6,420,792, with 58 percent in urban areas (settlements of two thousand or more persons), an increase of 16 percent over the 1976 census. The fastest-growing urban centers include Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and La Paz–El Alto, which account for over a third of the population. A low population density of fifteen inhabitants per square mile is paralleled by a young, fast-growing population (over 41 percent less than fifteen years old).

Linguistic Affiliation. Spanish, the national and official language, is spoken in urban centers, while the dominant languages in the rural highlands are Quechua (the Incan lingua franca) and Aymara and in the southeast Guaraní. Members of the Oriente ethnic polities (e.g., Guarayos, Mojeños, Tacanas, Movimas, Chimanes) speak Spanish and their indigenous languages, which are members of the Amazonian language family. Many trilingual (Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara) speakers live in Oruro and Potosí. Because of the greater prestige of Spanish, between 1976 and 1992, monolingual Spanish speakers increased almost 10 percent while those speaking only Quechua or Aymara dropped 50 percent. According to the 1992 census, at least 87 percent of all those over six years old spoke Spanish, an 11 percent increase over 1976 (although many are barely functional in Spanish). In 1992, 46 percent of residents were at least partly bilingual. Several varieties of Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara are spoken, and all have influenced one another in vocabulary, phonology, syntax, and grammar.

玻利维亚是南美第五大国。毗邻秘鲁和智利,西,阿根廷和巴拉圭到南部,和巴西北部和东部,它分为九个政治行政单位称为部门。有三个主要的地理,生态景观:高寒高原(高原)东部和西部的安第斯山脉链(东科迪勒拉山脉和西方)之间在12000至14000英尺(4,000至4,500米)的海拔,在山间峡谷(Valles公司)在科迪勒拉东方在平均8500英尺(2,600米)的海拔,和广阔的低地(东方)超越东方山脉的东部侧翼东端的一部分。人烟稀少的东方沼泽,草原,平原和热带和亚热带森林构成了超过70%的国家。

人口。从历史上看,玻利维亚一直主要在农村地区,其大部分克丘亚语和艾马拉语为母语的农民生活在高地社区。 1992年人口普查证实,80%的人生活在高原,并指出提高农村向城市迁移。 1992年,人口是6420792,与在城市地区58%(2000人或以上的定居点),同比增长16%,比1976年的人口普查。增长最快的城市中心包括科恰班巴,圣克鲁斯,和拉巴斯 - 埃尔阿托,其中超过三分之一的人口占了。每平方英里15居民,人口密度低是一个年轻的,快速增长的人口(超过41%不到十五岁)平行。

语言学归属。西班牙语的国家和官方语言,口语在城市中心,而在乡村高原的主导语言是克丘亚语(印加用得上)和艾马拉语和东南瓜拉尼。在东方民族政体的成员(例如,Guarayos,Mojeños,Tacanas,Movimas,Chimanes)说西班牙语,他们的土著语言,这是亚马逊的语言家族的成员。许多三语(西班牙语,克丘亚语,艾马拉和)扬声器住在奥鲁罗和波托西。由于西班牙,1976年至1992年的更大声望,单语西班牙语的人增加了近10%,而那些只说克丘亚语或艾马拉下降50%。根据1992年的人口普查,所有那些在六岁至少87%的讲西班牙语,比1976年增长了11%(虽然很多是勉强的功能西班牙文)。 1992年,居民46%的人至少部分双语。几个品种西班牙语,克丘亚语和艾马拉语都讲的,都已经在词汇,语音,语法和文法影响彼此。

BRAZIL

 

Brazil is a cultural melting pot. Brazilian culture has been shaped not only by the Portuguese, who first settled the country, but also by Brazil’s native Indians, the considerable African population, and other settlers from Europe, the Middle East and Asia. The varied heritages have been woven together so intricately, and transformed so radically by the shared climate, geography and history, that something entirely new has emerged.

Brazil’s language was Portuguese from the beginning. It still is, albeit a progressively softer and more musical version of the mother tongue, which eventually absorbed many African, Amerindian, Arab, American, and other European words.

巴西是一个文化大熔炉。巴西文化已形成不仅由葡萄牙,谁首先解决的国家,而且巴西的土著印第安人,在相当大的非洲人口,以及来自欧洲,中东和亚洲其他定居者。丰盛的遗产已经交织在一起这么错综复杂,并通过共享的气候,地理和历史的改造,使从根本上,这全新的东西出现了。

巴西的语言是从一开始的葡萄牙。它仍然是,虽然母语,最终吸收了许多非洲,美洲印第安人,阿拉伯,美国和欧洲其他词的逐渐柔软和更多的音乐版本。

COLOMBIA  

The finer things of life always find expression through art and culture well represented through various forms. The art and culture of Colombia is a true reflection of the rich culture and heritage of the country which has in fact been an inseparable part of it since time immemorial.

Colombia is a part of the Latin American culture, yet it bears distinct characteristic of its own. Since the earlier times, Colombia has been under the influence of Spanish culture, which has in fact left behind an indelible mark in every aspect of Colombian life. The rich vibrancy of the different regions of Colombia significantly contributes to the unique feature of the cultural identity of the country. The varied indigenous tribes such as Tayrona, Sinu, Quimbaya, Calima, Muisca who were prevalent during the ancient times, well structured the art and culture of Colombia and gave it a shape which later culminated into an amalgamation under the foreign influence.

The rapid phase of urbanization has led to the usherance of a cosmopolitan culture in Colombia and the effects of it are widely felt in different spheres of Colombian culture. The rich legacy of the Castilian heritage still continues to dominate the ethnicity of the country. The architectural landmarks scattered along cities and towns across Colombia bear testimony to the great historical events which rocked the country from time to time. The popular forms of art are well restored, and efforts are made to promote them among international diaspora. If you plan to visit Colombia, you can't afford to miss its authentic cuisine, dazzling nightlife and rich folk music. Innumerable art galleries, museum, theatre and art centers are the hub of various traditional art and dance forms held regularly at different times of the year. The attractive carnivals of Colombia draws huge crowd from different parts of the world.

Literary Aspects of Colombia---

The Colombian literature has a come long way and established itself as a treasure trove of wide literary forms, some of which has received international accolades in the past few years. The traditional festivals, the aspects of rural life and the intricacies of urban livelihood always continue to find a special place in many of the popular Colombian literary works. However, in this respect Nobel Prize winner, Gabriel Garc燰 M嫫quez finds a special mention, who is no less than an eminent figure in Colombia.

生活中的美好事物总是通过艺术和文化通过各种形式很好的体现找到表达。哥伦比亚艺术和文化是已经在事实上自古以来一直是它不可分割的一部分国家的丰富的文化和遗产的真实反映。

哥伦比亚是拉美文化的一部分,但它承担了自己的鲜明特征。由于更早的时候,哥伦比亚一直是西班牙文化,这其实已经留在哥伦比亚生活的方方面面了不可磨灭的印记的影响下。哥伦比亚不同地区的丰富活力显著贡献的国家的文化认同的独特功能。丰盛的土著部落,如泰罗纳,SINU,基姆巴亚,Calima,Muisca谁在古代是常见的,结构良好的哥伦比亚艺术和文化,并赋予它一个形状后最终进入外国影响下的合并。

城市化的快速阶段,导致在哥伦比亚大都会文化的usherance和它的效果被广泛认为在哥伦比亚文化的不同领域。卡斯提尔遗产的丰富遗产仍然继续主导该国的种族。沿着横跨哥伦比亚城市和城镇分散的地标性建筑见证到轰动全国不时的重大历史事件。艺术流行的形式是很好的恢复,并作出努力,促进他们的国际侨民之间。如果您计划访问哥伦比亚,你不能错过的地道美食,令人眼花缭乱的夜生活和丰富的民间音乐。无数的美术馆,博物馆,剧院和艺术中心是在一年中不同的时间定期举办各种传统艺术和舞蹈形式的枢纽。哥伦比亚吸引力的嘉年华会吸引庞大的人群来自世界的不同部分。

哥伦比亚文学方面---

哥伦比亚文学已经来到一个很长的路要走,并确立了自己作为广的文学形式,其中一些已经获得国际奖项,在过去几年的宝库。传统节日,农村生活的各个方面和城市生活的复杂性总是不断地发现在许多流行的哥伦比亚文学作品的一个特殊的地方。然而,在这方面诺贝尔经济学奖得主,加布里埃尔加西亚燰M嫫quez发现一个特别一提的,谁是不超过一个杰出的人物在哥伦比亚少。

ECUADOR

 

Ecuador's culture is arguably as varied as its population and politics. Mainstream culture is a mix of Amerindian, Spanish, African, North American, and other Latin American influences. Its mixed heritage has ensured the existence of a wide array of arts and crafts, literature, architectural styles, and musical rhythms.

Ecuadorean artists range from folk artisans working in a variety of forms, materials, and traditions to modern painters, sculptors, and ceramicists producing beautiful representational and abstract works.

Pre-Columbian artisans produced a wide range of pottery, paintings, sculpture, and gold and silver work. Intact pottery figurines dating from 3000 B.C. were discovered in the coastal village of Valdivia, and are still on display in several museums. After the arrival of the Spanish, art became increasingly influenced by Christianity. Paintings from colonial times can still be seen in many churches and museums. During the 17th and 18th centuries, painters of the Quito School began to combine Spanish and indigenous influences, but this movement fell out of favor following independence, when the focus shifted to formalist depictions of the great heroes of the revolution and the social elite.

Ecuador's most prominent modern artist is Oswaldo Guayasamín (1919-99), whose powerful paintings -- often of just faces and hands -- evoke the lives, struggles, and suffering of the country's indigenous population.

Indigenous woven tapestries and clothing are still available for sale throughout the country, as are fine basketwork, leatherwork, woodcarving, ceramics, and jewelry. The most famous indigenous craft is the Panama hat, as much a must-buy in Ecuador as cigars are in Cuba.

Galleries, shops, and markets in Quito, Otavalo, Ibarra, Cuenca, and Guayaquil carry a wide range of locally produced art and crafts.

Ecuador's buildings offer a charming mix of old and new. Quito is perhaps the South American colonial capital that has changed the least since Spanish rule. The city's very impressive colonial churches were built in the baroque style, including La Compañía de Jesús, the Iglesia de Santo Domingo and the Iglesia de San Francisco. Several neoclassical and Beaux Arts buildings also survive from the beginnings of the republic.

Some of the most beautiful buildings in Ecuador are also found in Cuenca. La Inmaculada, the city's main cathedral, was completed in 1885 and houses a famous painting of the Virgin Mary, along with modern stained glass. The city's other cathedral, El Sagrario, was completed in 1557 and built over Inca ruins, some of which are still visible. Several other colonial and colonial-esque buildings dot the historic city, including the district Supreme Court.

In Guayaquil, Ecuador's largest city, fire wiped out most of the old colonial buildings, and today modern high-rises coexist with tin-roof slums, though poverty is not laid as bare as in other urban areas of Latin America.

厄瓜多尔的文化可以说是不同的,因为它的人口和政治。主流文化是美洲印第安人,西班牙,非洲,北美,和其他拉美影响的混合。其混合遗产已确保工艺美术,文学,建筑风格,和音乐节奏的广泛存在。

厄瓜多尔艺术家范围从民间工匠以各种形式,材料和现代画家,雕塑家,陶艺及制作美丽的表象和抽象作品的传统工作。

前哥伦布时期的工匠制作了各种各样的陶器,绘画,雕塑,黄金和白银的工作。完好的陶俑历史可追溯至公元前3000被发现在瓦尔迪维亚的沿海村庄,并且仍然陈列在几个博物馆。西班牙人到来后,艺术成为了基督教的影响日益加深。从殖民时代的绘画仍然可以看到许多教堂和博物馆。在17世纪和18世纪,基多学校的画家开始结合西班牙语和土著的影响,但这种运动失宠独立后,当焦点转移到了革命和社会精英的伟大英雄的形式主义的描写。

厄瓜多尔的最突出的现代艺术家是奥斯瓦尔多·瓜亚萨明(1919年至1999年),其强大的画作 - 往往只是脸和手 - 唤起的生命,挣扎,以及该国的土著人口的苦难。

土著编织的挂毯和??服装仍然可用于在全国各地销售,因为是精编织物,皮革制品,木雕,陶瓷和珠宝。最有名的土著手艺的巴拿马草帽,竟有一个必买厄瓜多尔雪茄是古巴。

画廊,商店,以及在基多,Otavalo的,伊瓦拉,昆卡和瓜亚基尔市场进行广泛的当地生产的艺术和工艺品。

厄瓜多尔的建筑物提供新旧的迷人组合。基多也许是因为西班牙的统治,改变了至少南美殖民地首府。城市的非常令人印象深刻殖民时期的教堂建于巴洛克风格,包括香格里拉帕尼亚DE JESUS??,伊格莱西亚德圣多明各和伊格莱西亚去旧金山。几个新古典主义和美术学院的建筑也从共和国的开端生存。

一些在厄瓜多尔的最美丽的建筑物也发现在昆卡。香格里拉Inmaculada,城市的主教堂,建成于1885年,设有圣母玛利亚的名画,随着现代彩色玻璃。城市的另一大教堂,萨尔瓦多萨格拉里奥,完成于1557年建成了印加遗址,其中一些仍清晰可见。其他几个殖民地和殖民式的建筑点缀在历史悠久的城市,包括地区最高法院。

在厄瓜多尔瓜亚基尔最大的城市,消防消灭了大部分旧殖民时期建筑,而今天的现代高楼并存锡屋顶贫民窟,虽然贫穷并不敷设裸视在拉丁美洲的其他城市地区。

GUYANA

 

Its capital is George Town and majority of people resides here .Population of Guyana consists of 51% East Indian, 43% Afro- Guyanese, 4 % Amerindians and the last 2% of the population is a mix of European, Chinese and American. English is the official language whereas some other local dialects are also in use. The east Indian populations are the followers of Hindu religion and some also follows Hindu group The primitive inhabitants were Arawak Indians which later on followed by Carib Indians and they called this country as Guiana meant "land of waters".

Guyana Culture is mainly influenced by the Europeans as they fought a lot for the control of Guyana and the first settlement of European Culture came in the year 1615. Guyana History and Culture also has some Dutch influence and they had settled their colonies in Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice. Later on the Dutch traded with the Indian and settled a riverside plantation.

BR> Culture of Guyana influences its food also and its generally based on sea food and Creole dishes. Chinese food and also East Indian food like curries and roti are favored in the Guyanese food. Delicious fruit juices along with the drinks like beer, Russian beer, Brandy, Whisky are common part of the food .Painting and Sculptor the parts of visual arts and they are highly developed in the Guyana Culture. The art section of Guyana culture is also influential by poets and novelists. The favorite sports of the Guyanese are Cricket and Soccer.

Culture of Guyana is a mix and match of various races that evolved throughout the time and majority of inhabitants resides in the coastal plain and the beautiful Guyana has vast tropical rain forests and booming with wildlife and its one of the favorite tourist destinations and Guyana culture itself displays a lot about the South America Culture.

它的资本是乔治城和大多数人居住在这里。圭亚那的人口由51%的印度人,43%的非洲裔圭亚那,4%和美洲印第安人的人口在过去2%的混合欧洲,中国和美国。英语为官方语言,而其他一些地方方言也在使用。东印度的人口是印度教的信徒,有的还遵循印度教组的原始居民是阿拉瓦克印第安人,后来就接着加勒比印第安人和他们叫这个国家为属圭亚那的意思是“土地的水域”。

因为他们打了很多关于圭亚那的控制和欧洲文化的第一个定居点排在今年1615圭亚那文化主要受欧洲人。圭亚那历史和文化也有一些荷兰的影响,他们已经解决了他们的殖民地在埃塞奎博,德梅拉拉和伯比斯。后来荷兰与印度,成交河边种植园。

BR>圭亚那的文化影响它的食物也和它一般是根据海鲜和克里奥尔菜。中国菜也东印度的食物,如咖喱和烤肉的青睐,在圭亚那的食物。美味的果汁以及啤酒一样,俄罗斯啤酒饮料,白兰地,威士忌都是食物。绘画和雕塑家视觉艺术部分的共同部分,它们是高度发达的圭亚那文化。圭亚那文化艺术节也是有影响的诗人和小说家。圭亚那的最喜欢的运动是板球和足球。

圭亚那的文化是在整个时间和广大居民的演变不同种族的混合和匹配驻留在沿海平原和美丽的圭亚那拥有广袤的热带雨林和野生动物最喜欢的旅游目的地的一个,圭亚那文化本身蓬勃发展显示了很多关于南美文化。

PARAGUAY

 

The indigenous cultural influence has produced a wide array of artistic expressions in Paraguay. Originally considered a simple “handicraft,” its rescue and recognition as an art is owed in large part to archeologists, ethnologists, and general researchers of indigenous cultures who were developing their studies at the beginning of the 20th Century.

Within the indigenous art of Paraguay, those forms that stand out are basketwork and feathered ornaments, which constitute the oldest esthetic forms of the Guaraní peoples. Wickerwork, related to indigenous weaving, includes a wide array of baskets and bags created for various uses. The different consistency comes from the different materials, such as native bromeliads known as tacuarembó and caraguatá, and the pindo palm.

Indigenous feather art comes from distinct ethnicities, such as the Guaraní who use the “jeguaka” or adorning headdress for special ceremonies, or the Nivaclé that wear plumes made with colorful feathers. In addition to collars, bracelets and anklets from various indigenous groups, one of the most impressive feather art creations are the ornately detailed cloaks made of beautiful feathers, the kind that once upon a time were reserved only for Guaraní shamans.

Ceramics is another standout of the indigenous artistic expression of Paraguay. Ceramics deals with pieces ranging from ancient funerary urns to jugs used for culinary purposes, which are known for their ornamentation with engobe, urucú designs, or being corrugated, and works from Western Paraguay show Andean influences.

Finally there is the substantial branch of wood carving, that ranges from masks used for ethnic rituals, pipes, apyká or small chairs, to various types of animal- and human-like figures.

土著文化的影响已经产生艺术表现了各种各样的巴拉圭。最初认为是一个简单的“工艺品”,它的抢救和识别作为一种艺术是欠在很大程度上考古学家,民族学家,谁是在20世纪初发展他们的研究土著文化的一般研究人员。

在巴拉圭的土著艺术,那些脱颖而出的形式是草编和羽毛饰品,构成瓜拉尼民族最古老的审美形式。柳编制品,与土著织造,包括各种用途的创建篮子和袋子广泛。不同稠度来自不同的材料,如被称为塔夸伦博和caraguatá天然凤梨科植物,并且pindo手掌。

土著羽毛艺术源于不同的种族,如瓜拉尼谁使用“jeguaka”或装饰头饰特殊的仪式,或穿色彩鲜艳的羽毛羽毛制成的Nivaclé。除了项圈,手镯和脚镯来自不同土著群体中,最令人印象深刻的羽毛艺术作品之一是使美丽的羽毛的华丽细致斗篷,那从前被保留只为瓜拉尼巫师的那种。

陶瓷是巴拉圭的土著艺术的另一种表现突出。陶瓷处理件从古代丧葬瓮,以用于烹饪的目的,这是众所周知的装饰与化妆土,urucú设计,或者是瓦楞纸,与西方巴拉圭作品壶表明安第斯的影响。

最后是大量的分支木雕,范围从用于民族礼仪,管道,apyká或小椅子,各类动物和人类类似的人物面具。

PERU

 

Peru will also lead visitors into a world of art and age-old wisdom, the legacy of major pre-Hispanic civilizations such as the Quechua, Aymara and jungle peoples, whose view of the world was based on their observation of the Heavens and Nature.

Over the course of centuries, Peru incorporated the cultural contribution of European, African and Asian migrants.

People from Cajamarca
A diverse nation featuring many cultures, Peru is an endless wellspring of creativity. In addition to its historic, archaeological and architectural legacies, folk art is another of Peru's tourist attractions.

Its rich folklore is evident in more than 1,500 musical genres, combining instruments from the outside world with native Andean equivalents, such as the quena and zampoña flutes, which provide the accompanying music for more than 3,000 festivals such as the Candelaria, Inti Raymi, Carnivals, Corpus Christi and Easter Week.

At the same time, Peru boasts one of the most exquisite and varied cuisines on Earth, as local chefs have succeeded in adapting a diverse variety of native ingredients while remaining open to outside influences. Peru's cooking is an invitation to discover flavors and fragrant smells which are as authentic as they are ancient.

秘鲁也将带领游客进入艺术和古老智慧,大前西班牙文明,如克丘亚语,艾马拉语和丛林的人民,其对世界的看法是基于他们的观察天地自然的遗产的世界。

经过几个世纪的过程中,秘鲁注册成立的欧洲,非洲和亚洲移民的文化贡献。

从卡哈马卡人
一个多元化的国家具有许多文化中,秘鲁是创造力的源泉无止境。除了它的历史,考古和建筑遗产,民间艺术是另一个秘鲁的旅游景点。

其丰富的民间传说是显而易见的,1500多的音乐风格,从外部世界相结合的手段与当地安第斯等价物,如quena和zampoña笛子,它提供的伴奏音乐为3000多节日,如坎德拉里亚,英迪RAYMI,嘉年华,科珀斯克里斯蒂和复活节周。

与此同时,秘鲁拥有地球上最精致和多样的美食之一,当地厨师们已经成功地适应本土特色的品种多样,同时保持开放外界的影响。秘鲁的烹调是一个邀请,发现味道和芬芳的气味这是正宗的,因为它们是古老的。

SURINAME

 

Suriname is in South America but is considered a Caribbean country. The total area is 63,250 square miles (163,820 square kilometers). The majority of the inhabitants live in the narrow coastal zone. More than 90 percent of the national territory is covered by rain forest. Suriname is a tropical country with alternating dry and rainy seasons. Since the early colonial days, Paramaribo has been the capital.

Demography. The official population estimate in 2000 was 435,000. Approximately 35 to 40 percent of the population is of British Indian descent (the so-called Hindostani), 30 to 35 percent is Creole or Afro-Surinamese, 15 percent is of Javanese descent, 10 percent is Maroon (descended from runaway slaves), and there are six thousand to seven thousand Amerindians. Other minorities include Chinese and Lebanese/Syrians. Since 1870, the population has increased, but with many fluctuations. In the 1970s, mass emigration to the Netherlands led to a population decrease; an estimated 300,000 Surinamers now live in the Netherlands.

苏里南是南美洲,但被认为是加勒比海地区国家。总面积为63,250平方英里(163820平方公里)。大部分居民住在狭窄的沿海地带。超过90%的国土被水覆盖着热带雨林。苏里南是一个热带国家,交替的旱季和雨季。由于早期的殖民统治时期,帕拉马里博一直是资本。

人口。官方人口估计在2000年是435,000。人口的大约35%到40%是英国印度裔(即所谓的Hindostani),30%到35%是克里奥尔语或非裔苏里南,15%是爪哇血统,10%的褐色(从逃跑的奴隶的后裔),并有六千到七千印第安人。其他少数民族包括中国和黎巴嫩/叙利亚。自1870年以来,人口增多,但有许多波动。在20世纪70年代,大规模移民到荷兰导致人口减少,估计有300,000 Surinamers现在住在荷兰。

URUGUAY

 

Colonial literature was largely limited to science, education, and religion. Uruguay's first noteworthy writer to use gaucho themes was 18th-century poet Bartolome Hidalgo. Although not a gaucho himself, he was one of the first poets to introduce the colorful language of rural folk into poetry. Juan Zorrilla de San Martin wrote Tabare (1886; translated 1956), considered one of the genuine epic poems of America. Tabare describes the clash between Spanish settlers and indigenous people in Uruguay that ended in the destruction of the indigenous culture. 殖民文学在很大程度上仅限于科学,教育,宗教等。乌拉圭的第一个值得注意的编写者使用高科的主题是18世纪的诗人巴托洛梅伊达尔戈。虽然不是自己尼奥,他是第一个诗人,介绍乡村民俗成诗的丰富多彩的语言之一。胡安德索里利亚圣马丁塔巴雷写道( 1886年译1956) ,认为美国的真正史诗之一。描述塔巴雷西班牙殖民者和土著人民在乌拉圭,在本土文化的毁灭结束之间的冲突。

VENZUELA

 

Bulgarian Black Sea is the west side of a country in the Balkans . It is surrounded on the north by Romania , southwestern Republic of Macedonia , Serbia to the northwest and southeast , southern Greece, Turkey. Is close to the Turkish Straits means the key land route from Europe to the Middle East and Asia through Bulgaria.

Bulgaria is one of the few countries in Europe exotic , because it has a sublime beaches, charming churches chance , winter sports , to name a few facts. Although it is not often visit compared to other European countries , this is a beautiful place , there are a variety of activities for visitors to do .

During the communist era , the Black Sea is a favorite destination for travelers of the Iron Curtain . Now, more and more Western Europeans travel all over the country and many people have bought holiday homes near the Black Sea or in the picturesque village. Impact of 2008 global financial crisis in Bulgaria was severely affected by the economic downturn , 5 percent entered the country , recession, unemployment hovering close to double digits.

Even the richest 75 countries in the world , Bulgaria is still the poorest members of the EU. Problem facing the country is a weak judicial system , corruption, high unemployment, moderate levels of local government , a poor road infrastructure , as well as a certain degree . Constantly hovering near double-digit unemployment , the problems facing the country .

 

保加利亚是指一个国家在巴尔干地区的黑海西侧。它是由罗马尼亚包围的北部,塞尔维亚向西北,马其顿共和国的西南部,希腊南部,以及土耳其东南部。正在靠近土耳其海峡指的关键陆路从欧洲到中东和亚洲通过保加利亚。

保加利亚是欧洲为数不多的异国情调的国家之一,由于它拥有崇高的海滩,迷人的教堂,冬季运动的机会,仅举几例事实。虽然不经常访问相比其他欧洲国家,这是一个美丽的地方,有各种各样的活动,为旅客做。

在共产主义时期,黑海是一个最喜欢的目的地为旅客铁幕。现在,西方的欧洲人越来越多的旅游在全国各地和很多人都买了度假屋附近的黑海或者在风景如画的村庄。在2008年全球金融危机的影响,保加利亚被严重受经济衰退影响,所在国订立的5 %,经济衰退,失业率徘徊在接近两位数。

即使是最富有的75个国家的世界上,保加利亚仍然是欧盟最贫穷的成员。该国面临的问题是一个薄弱的司法体系,腐败的地方政府中等水平,一个贫穷的道路基础设施,以及一定程度的高失业率。失业率不断徘徊近两位数,这个问题该国面临。