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PARAGUAY

 

The indigenous cultural influence has produced a wide array of artistic expressions in Paraguay. Originally considered a simple “handicraft,” its rescue and recognition as an art is owed in large part to archeologists, ethnologists, and general researchers of indigenous cultures who were developing their studies at the beginning of the 20th Century.

Within the indigenous art of Paraguay, those forms that stand out are basketwork and feathered ornaments, which constitute the oldest esthetic forms of the Guaraní peoples. Wickerwork, related to indigenous weaving, includes a wide array of baskets and bags created for various uses. The different consistency comes from the different materials, such as native bromeliads known as tacuarembó and caraguatá, and the pindo palm.

Indigenous feather art comes from distinct ethnicities, such as the Guaraní who use the “jeguaka” or adorning headdress for special ceremonies, or the Nivaclé that wear plumes made with colorful feathers. In addition to collars, bracelets and anklets from various indigenous groups, one of the most impressive feather art creations are the ornately detailed cloaks made of beautiful feathers, the kind that once upon a time were reserved only for Guaraní shamans.

Ceramics is another standout of the indigenous artistic expression of Paraguay. Ceramics deals with pieces ranging from ancient funerary urns to jugs used for culinary purposes, which are known for their ornamentation with engobe, urucú designs, or being corrugated, and works from Western Paraguay show Andean influences.

Finally there is the substantial branch of wood carving, that ranges from masks used for ethnic rituals, pipes, apyká or small chairs, to various types of animal- and human-like figures.

著文化的影响已经产生艺术表现了各种各样的巴拉圭。最初认为是一个简单的“工艺品”,它的抢救和识别作为一种艺术是欠在很大程度上考古学家,民族学家,谁是在20世纪初发展他们的研究土著文化的一般研究人员。

在巴拉圭的土著艺术,那些脱颖而出的形式是草编和羽毛饰品,构成瓜拉尼民族最古老的审美形式。柳编制品,与土著织造,包括各种用途的创建篮子和袋子广泛。不同稠度来自不同的材料,如被称为塔夸伦博和caraguatá天然凤梨科植物,并且pindo手掌。

土著羽毛艺术源于不同的种族,如瓜拉尼谁使用“jeguaka”或装饰头饰特殊的仪式,或穿色彩鲜艳的羽毛羽毛制成的Nivaclé。除了项圈,手镯和脚镯来自不同土著群体中,最令人印象深刻的羽毛艺术作品之一是使美丽的羽毛的华丽细致斗篷,那从前被保留只为瓜拉尼巫师的那种。

陶瓷是巴拉圭的土著艺术的另一种表现突出。陶瓷处理件从古代丧葬瓮,以用于烹饪的目的,这是众所周知的装饰与化妆土,urucú设计,或者是瓦楞纸,与西方巴拉圭作品壶表明安第斯的影响。

最后是大量的分支木雕,范围从用于民族礼仪,管道,apyká或小椅子,各类动物和人类类似的人物面具。

BOLIVIA

 

Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America. Bordering Peru and Chile to the west, Argentina and Paraguay to the south, and Brazil to the north and east, it is divided into nine political–administrative units called departments. There are three major geographic–ecological landscapes: the high and cold plateau ( altiplano ) between the eastern and western Andean mountain chains (Cordillera Oriental and Cordillera Occidental) at 12,000 to 14,000 feet (4,000 to 4,500 meters) above sea level, the intermontane valleys ( valles ) in the easternmost part of the Cordillera Oriental at an average of 8,500 feet (2,600 meters) elevation, and the vast lowlands (Oriente) beyond the eastern flanks of the Cordillera Oriental. The sparsely populated Oriente—swamp, grasslands, plains, and tropical and subtropical forest—constitutes over 70 percent of the country.

Demography. Historically, Bolivia has been predominantly rural, with most of its Quechua- and Aymara-speaking peasants living in highland communities. The 1992 census confirmed that 80 percent of the people live in the highlands and noted increasing rural to urban migration. In 1992, the population was 6,420,792, with 58 percent in urban areas (settlements of two thousand or more persons), an increase of 16 percent over the 1976 census. The fastest-growing urban centers include Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and La Paz–El Alto, which account for over a third of the population. A low population density of fifteen inhabitants per square mile is paralleled by a young, fast-growing population (over 41 percent less than fifteen years old).

Linguistic Affiliation. Spanish, the national and official language, is spoken in urban centers, while the dominant languages in the rural highlands are Quechua (the Incan lingua franca) and Aymara and in the southeast Guaraní. Members of the Oriente ethnic polities (e.g., Guarayos, Mojeños, Tacanas, Movimas, Chimanes) speak Spanish and their indigenous languages, which are members of the Amazonian language family. Many trilingual (Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara) speakers live in Oruro and Potosí. Because of the greater prestige of Spanish, between 1976 and 1992, monolingual Spanish speakers increased almost 10 percent while those speaking only Quechua or Aymara dropped 50 percent. According to the 1992 census, at least 87 percent of all those over six years old spoke Spanish, an 11 percent increase over 1976 (although many are barely functional in Spanish). In 1992, 46 percent of residents were at least partly bilingual. Several varieties of Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara are spoken, and all have influenced one another in vocabulary, phonology, syntax, and grammar.

玻利维亚是南美第五大国。毗邻秘鲁和智利,西,阿根廷和巴拉圭到南部,和巴西北部和东部,它分为九个政治行政单位称为部门。有三个主要的地理,生态景观:高寒高原(高原)东部和西部的安第斯山脉链(东科迪勒拉山脉和西方)之间在12000至14000英尺(4,000至4,500米)的海拔,在山间峡谷(Valles公司)在科迪勒拉东方在平均8500英尺(2,600米)的海拔,和广阔的低地(东方)超越东方山脉的东部侧翼东端的一部分。人烟稀少的东方沼泽,草原,平原和热带和亚热带森林构成了超过70%的国家。

人口。从历史上看,玻利维亚一直主要在农村地区,其大部分克丘亚语和艾马拉语为母语的农民生活在高地社区。 1992年人口普查证实,80%的人生活在高原,并指出提高农村向城市迁移。 1992年,人口是6420792,与在城市地区58%(2000人或以上的定居点),同比增长16%,比1976年的人口普查。增长最快的城市中心包括科恰班巴,圣克鲁斯,和拉巴斯 - 埃尔阿托,其中超过三分之一的人口占了。每平方英里15居民,人口密度低是一个年轻的,快速增长的人口(超过41%不到十五岁)平行。

语言学归属。西班牙语的国家和官方语言,口语在城市中心,而在乡村高原的主导语言是克丘亚语(印加用得上)和艾马拉语和东南瓜拉尼。在东方民族政体的成员(例如,Guarayos,Mojeños,Tacanas,Movimas,Chimanes)说西班牙语,他们的土著语言,这是亚马逊的语言家族的成员。许多三语(西班牙语,克丘亚语,艾马拉和)扬声器住在奥鲁罗和波托西。由于西班牙,1976年至1992年的更大声望,单语西班牙语的人增加了近10%,而那些只说克丘亚语或艾马拉下降50%。根据1992年的人口普查,所有那些在六岁至少87%的讲西班牙语,比1976年增长了11%(虽然很多是勉强的功能西班牙文)。 1992年,居民46%的人至少部分双语。几个品种西班牙语,克丘亚语和艾马拉语都讲的,都已经在词汇,语音,语法和文法影响彼此。