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Antigua and Barbuda

 

The island of Antigua was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and named for the Church of Santa Maria de la Antigua in Seville. Antigua was colonized by Britain in 1632; Barbuda was first colonized in 1678. Antigua and Barbuda joined the West Indies Federation in 1958. With the breakup of the federation, it became one of the West Indies Associated States in 1967, self-governing its internal affairs. Full independence was granted Nov. 1, 1981.

The Bird family has controlled the islands since Vere C. Bird founded the Antigua Labor Party in the mid-1940s. While tourism and financial services have turned the country into one of the more prosperous in the Caribbean, law enforcement officials have charged that Antigua and Barbuda is a major center of money laundering, drug trafficking, and arms smuggling. Several scandals tainted the Bird family, especially the 1995 conviction of Prime Minister Lester Bird's brother, Ivor, for cocaine smuggling. In 2000, Antigua and 35 other offshore banking centers agreed to reforms to prevent money laundering.

安提瓜島在1493年由克里斯托弗·哥倫布探索,並在塞維利亞命名為聖母瑪利亞安提瓜教堂。安提瓜於1632年被英國殖民化;巴布達於1678年首次殖民。安提瓜和巴布達於1958年加入西印度聯邦。隨著聯邦分裂,1967年成為西印度聯合國之一,自治內政。完全獨立於1981年11月1日授予。

鳥類家族自19世紀40年代中期創立安提瓜工黨以來,控制著這些島嶼。雖然旅遊和金融服務已將該國變成加勒比最繁榮的國家之一,執法人員指責安提瓜和巴布達是洗錢,販毒和販賣武器的主要中心。幾個醜聞污染了Bird家族,特別是1995年,Lester Bird總理兄弟Ivor對走私可卡因的信念。 2000年,安提瓜和其他35個離岸銀行中心同意改革以防止洗錢。

Bahamas

 

The Bahamas are an archipelago of about 700 islands and 2,400 uninhabited islets and cays lying 50 mi off the east coast of Florida. They extend for about 760 mi (1,223 km). Only about 30 of the islands are inhabited; the most important is New Providence (80 sq mi; 207 sq km), on which the capital, Nassau, is situated. Other islands include Grand Bahama, Abaco, Eleuthera, Andros, Cat Island, and San Salvador (or Watling's Island).

The Bahamas were a Crown colony from 1717 until they were granted internal self-government in 1964. The islands moved toward greater autonomy in 1968 after the overwhelming victory in general elections of the Progressive Liberal Party, led by Prime Minister Lynden O. Pindling, over the predominantly white United Bahamians Party. With its new mandate from the black population (85% of Bahamians), Pindling's government negotiated a new constitution with Britain under which the colony became the Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands in 1969. On July 10, 1973, the Bahamas became an independent nation.

巴哈馬群島是距離佛羅里達州東海岸50公里的約700個島嶼和2,400個無人居住的小島和酒吧。它們延伸約760英里(1,223公里)。只有約30個島嶼居住著;最重要的是首都拿騷所在的新普羅維登斯(80平方米,207平方公里)。其他島嶼包括大巴哈馬,阿巴科,伊柳塞拉,安德羅斯,貓島和聖薩爾瓦多(或沃特林島)。

巴哈馬是1717年的皇家殖民地,直到1964年獲得內政自治。自從總理林登·潘丁德率領的進步自由黨大選之後,這些島嶼在1968年獲得了更大的自主權。主要是白色的聯合巴哈馬派對。隨著黑人人口(巴哈馬人的85%)的新任務,廷德林政府與英國談判制定了一部新憲法,殖民地在1969年成為巴哈馬群島的聯邦。1973年7月10日,巴哈馬成為一個獨立的國家。

Barbados

 

An island in the Atlantic about 300 mi (483 km) north of Venezuela, Barbados is only 21 mi long (34 km) and 14 mi across (23 km) at its widest point. It is circled by fine beaches and narrow coastal plains. The highest point is Mount Hillaby (1,105 ft; 337 m) in the north-central area.

Barbados was the administrative headquarters of the Windward Islands until it became a separate colony in 1885. Barbados was a member of the Federation of the West Indies from 1958 to 1962. Britain granted the colony independence on Nov. 30, 1966, and it became a parliamentary democracy within the Commonwealth.

Since independence, Barbados has been politically stable. In May 2003, Prime Minister Arthur won a third term. In parliamentary elections in January 2008, the Democratic Labour Party won 20 out of 30 seats. Former junior finance minister David Thompson took over as prime minister.

距離委內瑞拉北部約300公里(483公里)的大西洋島嶼,距離巴巴多斯最長的只有21公里(34公里),距離(23公里)14公里。 它被美麗的海灘和狹窄的沿海平原包圍。 最高點是山中山區山頂山(1,105英尺; 337米)。

巴巴多斯是向風群島的行政總部,直到1885年成為一個獨立的殖民地。巴巴多斯是1958年至1962年的西印度聯邦的成員。英國於1966年11月30日授予殖民地獨立,並成為 英聯邦內的議會民主。

自從獨立以來,巴巴多斯一直在政治上穩定。 2003年5月,亞瑟總理獲得第三任。 在2008年1月的議會選舉中,民主工黨在30個席位中贏得了20個席位。 前初級財政大臣湯普森接任首相。

COLOMBIA

 

Colombia is bordered on the northwest by Panama, on the east by Venezuela and Brazil, and on the southwest by Peru and Ecuador. Through the western half of the country, three Andean ranges run north and south. The eastern half is a low, jungle-covered plain, drained by spurs of the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, inhabited mostly by isolated tropical-forest Indian tribes. The fertile plateau and valley of the eastern range are the most densely populated parts of the country.

In 1899, a brutal civil war broke out, the War of a Thousand Days, that lasted until 1902. The following year, Colombia lost its claims to Panama because it refused to ratify the lease to the United States of the Canal Zone. Panama declared its independence in 1903.

哥倫比亞在西班牙與巴拿馬接壤,東面由委內瑞拉和巴西接壤,西南由秘魯和厄瓜多爾接壤。 通過西部半島,三個安第斯山脈南北奔跑。 東半部是一個低矮的叢林覆蓋的平原,由亞馬遜河和奧里諾科河流的馬刺排出,大部分居住在孤立的熱帶森林印第安部落。 東部肥沃的高原和山谷是全國人口最多的地區。

1899年,一場殘酷的內戰爆發了一千年的戰爭,持續到1902年。第二年,哥倫比亞因為拒絕批准向美國運河區的租賃而向巴拿馬提出索賠。 巴拿馬在1903年宣布獨立。

Belize

 

Belize is situated on the Caribbean Sea, south of Mexico and east and north of Guatemala in Central America. In area, it is about the size of New Hampshire. Most of the country is heavily forested with various hardwoods. Mangrove swamps and cays along the coast give way to hills and mountains in the interior. The highest point is Victoria Peak, 3,681 ft (1,122 m).

Belize became independent on Sept. 21, 1981. But Guatemala, which had made claims on the territory since the 1800s, refused to recognize it. British troops remained in the country to defend it. Although the dispute between Guatemala and Great Britain remained unresolved, Guatemala recognized Belize's sovereignty in Sept. 1991. Guatemala, however, still claims more than half of Belize’s territory.

Prime Minister Said Musa was reelected to a second term in 2003. Musa promised to improve conditions to the largely underdeveloped, southern part of Belize.

伯利茲位於加勒比海,墨西哥南部,中美洲危地馬拉東部和北部。 在這個地區,它是關於新罕布什爾州的大小。 該國大部分地區森林覆蓋著各種各樣的硬木。 紅樹林沼澤和海岸沿岸讓位於內陸的丘陵和山脈。 最高點是太平山,三千八百八十一公尺(1,122米)。

伯利茲9月份獨立 但是,自從19世紀以來在危地馬拉領土上提出索賠的危地馬拉卻拒絕承認這一點。 英國軍隊留在國內保衛。 雖然危地馬拉與英國之間的爭端仍未解決,但危地馬拉9月份承認伯利茲的主權。 然而,危地馬拉仍然要求伯利茲領土的一半以上。

總理Said Musa於2003年再次被選舉為第二任。Musa承諾改善伯利茲南部地區發達地區的條件。

Costa Rica

 

IThis Central American country lies between Nicaragua to the north and Panama to the south. Its area slightly exceeds that of Vermont and New Hampshire combined. It has a narrow Pacific coastal region. Cocos Island (10 sq mi; 26 sq km), about 300 mi (483 km) off the Pacific Coast, is under Costa Rican sovereignty.

José Maria Figueres Olsen of the National Liberation Party became president in 1994. He opposed economic suggestions made by the International Monetary Fund, instead favoring greater government intervention in the economy. The World Bank subsequently withheld $100 million of financing. In 1998, Miguel Angel Rodríguez of the Social Christian Unity Party became president, pledging economic reforms, such as privatization. In 2000, Costa Rica and Nicaragua resolved a long-standing dispute over navigation of the San Juan River, which forms their shared border. A psychiatrist, Abel Pacheco, also of the Social Christian Unity Party, won the presidency in elections held in April 2002. In May 2003, several national strikes took place, by energy and telecommunications workers over privatization and by teachers over their salaries.

這個中美洲國家位於北部的尼加拉瓜和南部的巴拿馬。其面積略高於佛蒙特州和新罕布什爾州。它有一個狹窄的太平洋沿岸地區。科西斯島(10平方英里; 26平方公里),距太平洋海岸約300公里(483公里),屬哥斯達黎加主權。
 
民族解放黨的何塞·瑪格麗·菲格雷斯·奧爾森(JoséMaria Figueres Olsen)於1994年成為總統。他反對國際貨幣基金組織提出的經濟建議,反而更多地強調政府對經濟的干預。世行後來獲得了1億美元的資金。 1998年,社會基督教團結黨的Miguel Angel Rodriguez成為總統,承諾經濟改革,如私有化。 2000年,哥斯達黎加和尼加拉瓜解決了與形成共同邊界的聖胡安河的長期爭端。 2002年4月,社會基督教團結黨精神病醫師亞伯·帕切科(Abel Pacheco)獲得總統候選人的權力。2003年5月,能源和電訊工作者進行了多次全國罷工,其中包括私有化和教師薪金。

Cuba

 

The largest island of the West Indies group (equal in area to Pennsylvania), Cuba is also the westernmost—just west of Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and 90 mi (145 km) south of Key West, Fla., at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico. The island is mountainous in the southeast and south-central area (Sierra Maestra). It is flat or rolling elsewhere. Cuba also includes numerous smaller islands, islets, and cays.

In 1933, a group of army officers, including army sergeant Fulgencio Batista, overthrew President Gerardo Machado. Batista became president in 1940, running a corrupt police state.

In 1956, Fidel Castro Ruz launched a revolution from his camp in the Sierra Maestra mountains. Castro's brother Raul and Ernesto (Ché) Guevara, an Argentine physician, were his top lieutenants. Many anti-Batista landowners supported the rebels. The U.S. ended military aid to Cuba in 1958, and on New Year's Day 1959, Batista fled into exile and Castro took over the government.

西印度群島(古巴)的最大的島嶼也是西部最西邊的一個,就在伊斯帕尼奧拉(海地和多米尼加共和國)的西邊,距離佛羅里達州西南基西西南90英里(145公里) 墨西哥灣的入口。 該島在東南部和中部地區(Sierra Maestra)有多山。 在其他地方平坦還是滾動。 古巴還包括許多較小的島嶼,島嶼和島嶼。

1933年,一群軍官,包括陸軍軍官Fulgencio Batista,推翻了總統Gerardo Machado。 巴蒂斯塔在1940年成為總統,運行腐敗的警察狀態。

1956年,菲德爾·卡斯特羅·魯茲從他在Sierra Maestra山脈的營地發動了一場革命。 阿根廷醫師卡斯特羅的哥哥勞爾和埃內斯托(ChéGuevara)是他的中尉。 許多反巴蒂斯塔地主支持叛軍。 美國 1958年向古巴提供軍事援助,1959年的新年,巴蒂斯塔飛到流亡,卡斯特羅接管了政府。

Dominica

 

Explored by Columbus in 1493, Dominica was claimed by Britain and France until 1763, when it was formally ceded to Britain. Along with other Windward Isles, it became a self-governing member of the West Indies Associated States in free association with Britain in 1967.

Dissatisfaction with the slow pace of reconstruction after Hurricane David devastated the island in Sept. 1979 brought a landslide victory to Mary Eugenia Charles of the Freedom Party in July 1980. The Freedom Party won again in 1985 and 1990. The opposition United Workers' Party won in June 1995. In 1997, Dominica became the first Caribbean country to participate in the work of Green Globe, aiming to make Dominica a model ecotourism destination. Although the island is poorer than some of its Caribbean neighbors, Dominica has a relatively low crime rate and does not have the extremes of wealth and poverty evident on other islands. Economic austerity measures, including higher taxes, were introduced in 2002. Massive protests followed.

In parliamentary elections in 2005, Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit's Dominica Labour Party won 12 of 21 seats.

多倫多在1493年由哥倫布探索,英國和法國宣稱直到1763年,當時它被正式交付給了英國。隨著其他風向群島,1967年成為西印度群島與英國自由聯合的自治成員。

在颶風大衛9月份摧毀該島後,對重建步伐緩慢的不滿。 1979年,1980年7月,自由黨的Mary Eugenia Charles獲得了滑坡勝利。自由黨在1985年和1990年再次獲得勝利。反對派聯合工人黨在1995年贏得了勝利。1997年,多米尼克成為第一個參加加勒比國家的國家綠色地球的工作,旨在使多米尼加成為模範生態旅遊目的地。雖然該島比其一些加勒比鄰國更貧窮,但多米尼克的犯罪率相對較低,在其他島嶼上並沒有財富和貧窮的極端。經濟緊縮措施,包括較高的稅收,於2002年引入。隨之而來的大規模抗議活動。

在2005年的議會選舉中,羅斯福總理多米尼加工黨獲得了21個席位中的12個席位。

Dominican Republic

 

The Dominican Republic in the West Indies occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with Haiti. Its area equals that of Vermont and New Hampshire combined. Duarte Peak, at 10,417 ft (3,175 m), is the highest point in the West Indies.

A sergeant in the Dominican army trained by the marines, Rafaél Leonides Trujillo Molina, overthrew Horacio Vásquez in 1930 and established a dictatorship that lasted until his assassination in 1961, 31 years later. In 1962, Juan Bosch of the leftist Dominican Revolutionary Party, became the first democratically elected president in four decades.

西印度群島的多米尼加共和國占據與海地共享的伊斯帕尼奧拉島東部三分之二。 其面積與佛蒙特州和新罕布什爾州相當。 杜阿爾峰位於10,417英尺(3175米),是西印度群島的最高點。

海軍陸戰隊訓練的多米尼加軍士長拉斐爾·列奧尼斯·特魯希略·莫利納(Rafael Leonides Trujillo Molina)在1930年推翻了HoracioVásquez,並建立了一個持續到1961年31年之前被暗殺的專政。 1962年,左派多米尼加革命黨的胡安博世成為四十年來首任民主選舉的總統。

El Salvador

 

Situated on the Pacific coast of Central America, El Salvador has Guatemala to the west and Honduras to the north and east. It is the smallest of the Central American countries, with an area equal to that of Massachusetts, and it is the only one without an Atlantic coastline. Most of the country is on a fertile volcanic plateau about 2,000 ft (607 m) high.

El Salvador, with the other countries of Central America, declared its independence from Spain on Sept. 15, 1821, and was part of a federation of Central American states until that union dissolved in 1838. For decades after its independence, El Salvador experienced numerous revolutions and wars against other Central American republics. From 1931 to 1979 El Salvador was ruled by a series of military dictatorships.

In 1969, El Salvador invaded Honduras after Honduran landowners deported several thousand Salvadorans. The four-day war became known as the “football war” because it broke out during a soccer game between the two countries.

位於中美洲太平洋沿岸,薩爾瓦多西部有危地馬拉,北部和東部則有洪都拉斯。它是中美洲最小的國家,面積與馬薩諸塞州相當,是唯一沒有大西洋海岸線的國家。全國大部分地區是高達2000英尺(607米)的沃土上的火山高原。

薩爾瓦多與中美洲其他國家9月份宣布獨立於西班牙。 1518年1821年,是中美洲各國的聯邦的一部分,直到這個工會在1838年解散。在獨立後的幾十年裡,薩爾瓦多經歷了與其他中美洲共和國的許多革命和戰爭。從1931年到1979年,薩爾瓦多被一系列軍事獨裁統治。

1969年,薩爾瓦多入侵洪都拉斯,洪都拉斯地主驅逐了幾千名薩爾瓦多人。這場為期四天的戰爭被稱為“足球戰爭”,因為在兩國之間的足球比賽中爆發了這場戰爭。

Grenada

 

Grenada (the first “a” is a long vowel) is the most southerly of the Windward Islands, about 100 mi (161 km) from the Venezuelan coast. It is a volcanic island traversed by a mountain range, the highest peak of which is Mount St. Catherine (2,756 ft; 840 m).

In 1979, the Marxist New Jewel Movement staged a coup, and its leader, Maurice Bishop, became prime minister. Bishop, a protégé of Cuba's President Castro, was killed in a military coup on Oct. 19, 1983.

格林納達(第一個“a”是一個長元音)是距離委內瑞拉海岸約100英里(161公里)的向風群島最南端。 它是一個由山脈穿過的火山島,最高峰是聖凱瑟琳山(2,756英尺,840米)。

1979年,馬克思主義新寶石運動發動政變,其領導人莫里斯·主教成為總理。 主教,古巴總統卡斯特羅的一名抗議者,1983年10月19日在一場軍事政變中喪生。

Guatemala

 

The northernmost of the Central American nations, Guatemala is the size of Tennessee. Its neighbors are Mexico on the north and west, and Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador on the east. The country consists of three main regions—the cool highlands with the heaviest population, the tropical area along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts, and the tropical jungle in the northern lowlands (known as the Petén).

Once the site of the impressive ancient Mayan civilization, Guatemala was conquered by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in 1524 and became a republic in 1839 after the United Provinces of Central America collapsed. From 1898 to 1920, dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera ran the country, and from 1931 to 1944, Gen. Jorge Ubico Castaneda served as strongman.

危地馬拉最大的中美洲國家是田納西州的大小。 其鄰國是北部和西部的墨西哥,東部的伯利茲,洪都拉斯和薩爾瓦多。 該國由三個主要地區組成,即擁有人口最多的涼爽高地,太平洋和加勒比海岸的熱帶地區以及北部低地的熱帶叢林(被稱為彼岸)。

曾經是令人印象深刻的古代瑪雅文明的遺址,危地馬拉在1524年被西班牙征服者佩德羅·德阿爾瓦拉多征服,並在中美洲聯合省崩潰後於1839年成為共和國。 1898年至1920年,獨裁者埃斯特拉達·卡夫雷拉(Manuel Estrada Cabrera)經營了這個國家,從1931年到1944年,Jorge Ubico Castaneda將軍成為一名強者

Haiti

 

Haiti, in the West Indies, occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. About the size of Maryland, Haiti is two-thirds mountainous, with the rest of the country marked by great valleys, extensive plateaus, and small plains. 海地在西印度群島佔據了與多米尼加共和國的伊斯帕尼奧拉島的西部三分之一。 關於馬里蘭州的規模,海地是山區的三分之二,其他國家則以偉大的山谷,廣闊的高原和小平原為特徵。

Honduras

 

Honduras, in the north-central part of Central America, has a Caribbean as well as a Pacific coastline. Guatemala is to the west, El Salvador to the south, and Nicaragua to the east. The second-largest country in Central America, Honduras is slightly larger than Tennessee. Generally mountainous, the country is marked by fertile plateaus, river valleys, and narrow coastal plains.

In 1969, El Salvador invaded Honduras after Honduran landowners deported several thousand Salvadorans. Five thousand people ultimately died in what is called “the football war” because it broke out during a soccer game between the two countries. By threatening economic sanctions and military intervention, the Organization of American States (OAS) induced El Salvador to withdraw.

洪都拉斯在中美洲的北部中部地區有加勒比海以及太平洋海岸線。 危地馬拉在西邊,薩爾瓦多南部,尼加拉瓜向東。 洪都拉斯是中美洲第二大國家,比田納西州略大。 一般山區,國家以肥沃的高原,河谷和狹窄的沿海平原為特徵。

1969年,薩爾瓦多入侵洪都拉斯,洪都拉斯地主驅逐了幾千名薩爾瓦多人。 因為在兩國之間的足球比賽中爆發,所以有五千人在所謂的“足球戰爭”中死亡。 通過威脅經濟制裁和軍事干預,美洲國家組織(美洲組織)引起薩爾瓦多撤軍。

Jamaica

 

Jamaica is an island in the West Indies, 90 mi (145 km) south of Cuba and 100 mi (161 km) west of Haiti. It is a little smaller than Connecticut. The island is made up of coastal lowlands, a limestone plateau, and the Blue Mountains, a group of volcanic hills, in the east.

On May 5, 1953, Jamaica gained internal autonomy, and, in 1958, superheaded the organization of the West Indies Federation. A nationalist labor leader, Sir Alexander Bustamente, later campaigned to withdraw from the federation. After a referendum, Jamaica became independent on Aug. 6, 1962. Michael Manley, of the socialist People's National Party, became prime minister in 1972.

牙買加是古巴南部90公里(145公里),海地以西100公里(161公里)的西印度群島。 它比康涅狄格州小一些。 該島由東部沿海低地,石灰岩高原和藍山,一群火山組成。

  1953年5月5日,牙買加獲得內部自治權,並於1958年取代了西印度聯邦的組織。 民族主義勞工領袖亞歷山大·布斯塔耶特爵士後來競選退出聯邦。 民進全民投票後,1962年8月6日,牙買加獨立。社會主義人民民族共和國的邁克爾·曼利在1972年成為總理。

Mexico

 

Mexico is bordered by the United States to the north and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. Mexico is about one-fifth the size of the United States. Baja California in the west is an 800-mile (1,287-km) peninsula that forms the Gulf of California. In the east are the Gulf of Mexico and the Bay of Campeche, which is formed by Mexico's other peninsula, the Yucatán. The center of Mexico is a great, high plateau, open to the north, with mountain chains on the east and west and with ocean-front lowlands beyond.

From 1821 to 1877, there were two emperors, several dictators, and enough presidents and provisional executives to make a new government on the average of every nine months. Mexico lost Texas (1836), and after defeat in the war with the U.S. (1846–1848), it lost the area that is now California, Nevada, and Utah, most of Arizona and New Mexico, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. In 1855, the Indian patriot Benito Juárez began a series of reforms, including the disestablishment of the Catholic Church, which owned vast property. The subsequent civil war was interrupted by the French invasion of Mexico (1861) and the crowning of Maximilian of Austria as emperor (1864). He was overthrown and executed by forces under Juárez, who again became president in 1867.

墨西哥毗鄰北部的美國和南部的伯利茲和危地馬拉。墨西哥大約是美國的五分之一。西加州的下加利福尼亞州是一個800英里(1287公里)的半島,形成加利福尼亞灣。在東部是墨西哥灣和坎佩切灣,由墨西哥的其他半島尤卡坦組成。墨西哥的中心是一個高,高的高原,向北開放,東部和西部有山鏈,並有遠洋高地。


從1821年到1877年,有兩個皇帝,幾個獨裁者,足夠的總統和臨時執行官,每九個月平均一個新的政府。墨西哥失去了德克薩斯州(1836年),在與美國的戰爭中失敗後(1846-1848),它失去了現在的加利福尼亞州,內華達州和猶他州,亞利桑那州和新墨西哥州,以及懷俄明州和科羅拉多州的一部分根據“瓜達盧佩Hidalgo條約”的區域。 1855年,印度愛國者貝尼托·尤雷斯(BenitoJuárez)開始了一系列改革,包括擺脫擁有龐大財產的天主教會。隨後的內戰被法國入侵墨西哥(1861年)和奧地利的馬克西米利安(皇帝)(1864年)的加冕打斷了。他在1867年再次成為總統的Juárez的部隊被推翻和執行。

Nicaragua

 

Largest but most sparsely populated of the Central American nations, Nicaragua borders Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It is slightly larger than New York State. Nicaragua is mountainous in the west, with fertile valleys. Two big lakes, Nicaragua and Managua, are connected by the Tipitapa River. The Pacific coast is volcanic and very fertile. The swampy Caribbean coast is aptly called the “Mosquito Coast.”

To back up its support of the new Conservative government in 1909, the U.S. sent a small detachment of marines to Nicaragua from 1912 to 1925. The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty of 1916 (terminated in 1970) gave the U.S. an option on a canal route through Nicaragua and naval bases. U.S. Marines were sent again to quell disorder after the 1924 elections. A guerrilla leader, Gen. César Augusto Sandino, fought the U.S. troops from 1927 until their withdrawal in 1933.

中美洲最大但人口稀少的國家尼加拉瓜北部是洪都拉斯,南部是哥斯達黎加。 它比紐約州略大。 尼加拉瓜在西部是山區,有肥沃的山谷。 兩個大湖,尼加拉瓜和馬那瓜,都由Tipitapa河相連。 太平洋沿岸是火山,非常肥沃。 沼澤的加勒比海岸恰好稱為“蚊子海岸”。

在1909年,為了支持新的保守黨政府,美國 從1912年到1925年,派出一小批海軍陸戰隊員到尼加拉瓜。1916年的布萊恩 - 夏莫羅條約(1970年終止)給了美國 通過尼加拉瓜和海軍基地的運河路線的選擇。美國 在1924年的選舉之後,海軍陸戰隊又被送到平靜混亂。 游擊隊領袖塞薩爾·奧古斯托·桑迪諾將軍在美國戰鬥 從1927年到1933年撤軍。

Panama

 

  • epublic of Panama

  • President: Juan Carlos Varela (2014)

  • Land area: 29,340 sq mi (75,991 sq km); total area: 30,193 sq mi (78,200 sq km)

  • Population (2014 est.): 3,608,431 (growth rate: 1.35%); birth rate: 18.61/1000; infant mortality rate: 10.7/1000; life expectancy: 78.3; density per sq mi: 140.6

  • Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Panama City, 1.426 million

  • Other large cities: San Miguelito, 321,501; Tocumen, 88,543

  • Monetary units: balboa; U.S. dollar

巴拿馬共和國
主席:胡安·卡洛斯·瓦雷拉(2014年)
土地面積:29,340平方米(75,991平方公里); 總面積:30,193平方米(78,200平方公里)
人口(2014年估計):3,608,431(增長率:1.35%); 出生率:18.61 / 1000; 嬰兒死亡率:10.7 / 1000; 預期壽命:78.3; 密度每平方英寸:140.6
首都和最大城市(2011年估計):巴拿馬城,1.26億
其他大城市:聖米格利多,321,501; 托庫門,88,543
貨幣單位:balboa;美國美元

Trinidad and Tobago

 

Trinidad and Tobago lie in the Caribbean Sea off the northeast coast of Venezuela. Trinidad, the larger at 1,864 sq mi (4,828 sq km), is mainly flat and rolling, with mountains in the north that reach a height of 3,085 ft (940 m) at Mount Aripo. Tobago, at just 116 sq mi (300 sq km), is heavily forested with hardwood trees.

In 1990, to protest the NAR government, some 100 radical black Muslims blew up the police station in an attempted coup, in which the prime minister and other officials were held hostage for six days. The NAR was defeated in 1991, and the PNM returned to power. In 1995, the East Indian–based party, the United National Congress (UNC), led by Basdeo Panday, formed a coalition government with the NAR. In 2000, Panday narrowly won another term.

In Dec. 2001 elections, the governing UNC Party and the PNM Party gained 18 seats each. The two parties agreed to allow President Robinson to select the prime minister to end the impasse. But when Robinson chose Patrick Manning of the PNM because of his “moral and spiritual values,” the opposition angrily called for new elections. In the Oct. 2002 elections, Manning's party declared victory. Maxwell Richards, a university dean, was selected president by parliament in 2003.

特立尼達和多巴哥位於委內瑞拉東北海岸的加勒比海。特立尼達,最大的是1,864平方米(4,828平方公里),主要是平的和滾動的,北部的山峰在阿里波山的高度為3,085英尺(940米)。只有116平方米(300平方公里)的多巴哥,樹木茂密,樹木茂密。

1990年,為抗議NAR政府,大約100名激進的黑人穆斯林在一次未遂政變中吹響警察局,其中總理和其他官員被扣為人質六天。國防軍在1991年被擊敗,國民軍返回掌權。 1995年,以印度為基地的黨,由Basdeo Panday率領的聯合國反對派組成聯合政府。潘迪在2000年狹窄地贏得了另一個任期。

2001年12月的選舉中,理事會黨和民族團結黨共有18個席位。雙方同意讓羅賓遜總統選出總理來結束僵局。但是當羅賓遜因為“道德和精神價值觀”而選擇了帕特里克·曼寧,因此反對派憤怒地呼籲新的選舉。在2002年10月的選舉中,曼寧黨宣布勝利。大學院長麥克斯韋理查茲,2003年當選為議會議長。