UKRAINE

Ukraine (Ukrainian: УКРА?НА) in eastern Europe, is the largest country in Europe except Russia territorial area. One of 15 former Soviet republics, is the third largest republics after Russia and Kazakhstan.

Ukraine is an emerging free market economy, Ukraine is more developed industry and agriculture, heavy industry occupies a dominant position in the industry. Ukrainian military field still retains a large armed forces system. Ukraine to implement political principle of separation of powers, as the legal national sovereignty, independence, democracy, republic. As the representative of the President of the Supreme Head of the country.

Ukraine is the largest country in Europe except Russia's land area. There are 23,000 small rivers, more than 20,000 lakes, of which 3,000 rivers longer than 10 kilometers, 116 more than 100 km. The main rivers are: the Dnieper, Nanbu Ge river Dniester River, north of Donetsk River Prut River and the Danube. More a lack of forest resources, the forest coverage rate of 14.3% across the three vegetation zones - forest swamp, forest steppe and steppe zone. 72 kinds of mineral resources, mainly coal, iron, manganese, nickel, titanium, mercury, graphite, fire clay, stone, oil and gas, iron ore deposits of about 27.5 billion tons. The relative scarcity of oil and gas resources, 80% of reserves at the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast and the Black Sea coast, 90% dependent on imports. Ukrainian Donbass is the largest coal mine, has proven reserves of 109 billion tons.

Ukrainian Population 45,550,000 (January 1, 2013). There are more than 130 ethnic groups, accounting for 77% of Ukrainians, Russians accounted for 17%, other Belarusian, Jewish, Tatar, Moldovan family, Poles, Hungarians, Romania race, Greek, German race, Bulgarians and so on. The official language is Ukrainian, Russian GM. The main religion is Orthodox and Catholic.

Ukrainian National - Capital
Kiev (kyiv). November 23, 1995 the Ukrainian legal terminology committee decided to move the capital of the Latin spelling of "kiev" rewrite "kyiv". Population of 2.78 million, with an area 827 square kilometers. The political, economic, cultural, scientific centers.

National Museum of Art is located in Kiev, founded in 1898, focuses on the Ukrainian art collection, protection and exhibition, with its own art collection and become the pride of Ukrainian culture, and is an ideal choice to understand the art of Ukraine. Concern Ukrainian National Arts Bo

Kiev city museum was originally antiques and art museums, a wartime to History, World War II changed back to its original name, until it becomes an independent Ukraine in the early 21st century name. The museum's art collection Ukrainian artists from around the world, and some came from the collection of Moscow, St. Petersburg and some came from the collection, and even some works from the hands of living in Europe and the Americas Ukrainian artists, covering both medieval drawings, also includes military sketches and sketches Cossack era church leaders, both with a long history of painting, there are brightly colored watercolor, more people amazed at the variety of topics sculpture, dizzying.

National Aviation Museum is located in Kiev, near Kiev airport (Zhulyany Airport), founded in 2003, is the youngest museum in Ukraine, but also the largest aviation museum about the history and technology of Ukraine. In the museum was first established, only 30 air machine, after 10 years of development, the early 21st century, the museum is about more than 70 aircraft and helicopters, in addition, there are a variety of anti-aircraft weapons, aircraft and aircraft engines. The museum has a collection of Soviet-era design of various high-tech aircraft design bureau, such as the Tupolev Design Institute, Yakeliefu Design Bureau, Ilyushin Design Bureau Antonov Design Bureau, the Sukhoi Design Bureau, Georgia design of all types and styles of Lie Weiqi aircraft design bureau, Kamov design bureau, do not 里耶夫 design bureau, in addition, there are a variety of aircraft models early 1900s.

乌克兰(乌克兰文:УКРА?НА)位于欧洲东部,是欧洲除俄罗斯外领土面积最大的国家。原苏联15个加盟共和国之一,是仅次于俄罗斯和哈萨克斯坦的第三大加盟共和国。

乌克兰是一个新兴的自由市场经济体,乌克兰工农业较为发达,重工业在工业中占据主要地位。乌克兰的军事领域仍保留着庞大的武装力量系统。乌克兰实行三权分立的政治原则,为主权、独立、民主的法制国家,实行共和制。总统为代表国家的最高元首。

乌克兰是欧洲除俄罗斯外陆地面积最大的国家。境内有大小河流2.3万条,湖泊2万多个,其中3000条河流长度超过10公里,116条超过100公里。主要河流有:第聂伯河、南布格河、德涅斯特河、北顿涅茨克河、普鲁特河和多瑙河。森林资源较为缺乏,森林覆盖率14.3%,跨越三个植被带—森林沼泽带、森林草原带和草原带。矿藏资源72种,主要有煤、铁、锰、镍、钛、汞、石墨、耐火土、石材、石油和天然气等,铁矿藏量约275亿吨。石油和天然气资源相对匮乏,其中80%蕴藏在第聂伯罗彼得罗夫斯克州和黑海沿岸,90%依赖进口。顿巴斯为乌最大的煤矿,已探明储量1090亿吨。

乌克兰人口4555万(2013年1月1日)。共有130多个民族,乌克兰族占77%,俄罗斯族占17%,其他为白俄罗斯族、犹太族、鞑靼族、摩尔多瓦族、波兰族、匈牙利族、罗马尼亚族、希腊族、德意志族、保加利亚族等。官方语言为乌克兰语,通用俄语。主要宗教为东正教和天主教。

乌克兰国家-首都
基辅(kyiv)。1995年11月23日乌克兰法律术语委员会决定,将首都的拉丁文拼写由“kiev”改写为“kyiv”。人口278万,面积827平方公里。全国政治、经济、文化、科学中心。

国家艺术博物馆坐落于基辅,成立于1898年,侧重于乌克兰艺术的收集、保护和展出,以其拥有的艺术珍藏而成为乌克兰文化的骄傲,是了解乌克兰艺术的理想选择。备受关注的乌克兰国家艺术博

物馆最初是基辅市古董和艺术博物馆,一战时改为历史博物馆,二战后改回原名,直到乌克兰独立才变为21世纪初的名字。馆内的艺术收藏来自世界各地的乌克兰艺术家,有的从莫斯科收集而来,有的从圣彼得堡收集而来,甚至有的作品出自生活于欧洲和美洲的乌克兰艺术家之手,既涵盖有中世纪素描,也包括有哥萨克时期的军队素描和教堂领导者素描,既有具有悠久历史的油画,也有颜色鲜艳的水彩画,更有让人赞叹不已的各种主题的雕塑,让人目不暇接。

国家航空博物馆坐落于基辅,临近祖哈尼机场 (Zhulyany Airport),成立于2003年,为乌克兰最年轻的博物馆,同时也是关于乌克兰航空历史和技术的最大博物馆。在博物馆成立之初,仅有30件航空机器,经过10多年的发展,21世纪初馆内约有70多架飞机和直升机,此外,还有多种防空武器、飞行器和航空发动机。馆内收藏有前苏联时期各个设计局设计的高科技飞机,如图波列夫设计院、雅克列夫设计局、伊留申设计局、安东诺夫设计局、苏霍伊设计局、格列维奇设计局、卡莫夫设计局、别里耶夫设计局等设计的各种类型和款式的飞机,此外,还有20世纪早期各种飞机的模型。

UKRAINE ARCHITECTURE

Ukrainian National Academy of Fine Arts was founded in 1917, called the National University of Fine Arts and Architecture of Ukraine, Ukrainian Art Academy is also located in the school. Schools located in the center of the capital Kiev.

Ukraine Ukrainian National Institute of Arts is the highest art institution, is one of the world's finest European Academy of Fine Arts, the former Soviet Union's best Academy of Fine Arts there are three, namely: Moscow Academy of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts and the National Academy of Fine Arts in Kiev, Ukraine . There are professional painting, oil painting, sculpture, art theory, stage art, arts and crafts, architecture, art restoration. Creation of paintings, prints, classical art, architecture, modern art, architecture, background layout, building renovation, art preservation programs. From the beginning of the school on the school to recruit foreign students, and now, the hospital rigorous scholarship, academic atmosphere, attention to the development of student creative talent. The school has a weekly exhibition, there are regular literary seminars and academic lectures. Art Salon at the school has a high reputation in the international art world. Meanwhile, the Institute attaches great importance to international academic exchanges. In addition to maintaining regular brother out with the CIS institutions, it also cooperation and exchanges with France, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, Britain, the United States and other countries art institutions.

There are currently 26 countries, students and experts in the school learning and education. College and many companies have signed a contract employers, students after graduation directly to Ukraine and many other foreign companies to participate in the work. Students can participate in during their studies of various forms of international exhibitions, and joined the International Art Salon, after graduation can go directly to these organizations work.

乌克兰国立美术学院创建于1917年,全称为乌克兰国立美术与建筑艺术大学,乌克兰艺术科学院也设在该校。学校位于首都基辅市中心。

乌克兰国立艺术学院是乌克兰最高艺术学府,也是世界和欧洲最优秀的美术学院之一,前苏联最优秀的美术学院有三所,即:莫斯科美术学院、圣彼德堡美术学院及乌克兰基辅国立美术学院。专业有写生、油画、雕塑、艺术原理、舞台艺术、工艺美术、建筑、艺术品修复等。开设绘画、版画、古典艺术、建筑艺术、现代艺术、建筑设计、背景布置、建筑修缮、艺术品保存等课程。该校从开始建校时就招收外国学生,现在,该院治学严谨,学术氛围浓厚,重视开发学生创作天赋。学校每周有作品展览,有经常性的文艺学术研讨会和学术讲座。该校的艺术沙龙在国际艺术界有很高的声誉。同时,学院十分注重国际学术交流。除与独联体的兄弟院校保持经常性的来往外,它还与法国、意大利、瑞士、荷兰、德国、英国、美国等国的美术院校开展合作和交流。

目前有26个国家的留学生和有关专家在该校学习和进修。学院与许多公司的用人单位签有合同,学生毕业后可直接到乌克兰和其它国外的许多公司参加工作。学生在学习期间可参加各种形式的国际性展览会,并可加入国际艺术沙龙,在结业后可直接到这些组织工作。

UKRAINE FOOD

In Ukraine, the Ukrainian people's eating customs with Russia, Belarus and Poland and the Czech Republic and other Eastern European countries, roughly the same, with pasta, rice is the staple food, like bread, especially black bread.

Diet throughout the year with potatoes, cabbage, onions, carrots, pickles, cheese, dairy products, milk and sour cream-based. Summer, Ukrainians diet of vegetables and fruits more, but winter festival only occasionally at the dinner table to see fresh vegetables and fruits. Local residents also particularly like to eat a sweet filling of steaming dumplings, cottage cheese or cherries wrapped in upcoming dumplings, cooked slightly sour cream sauces, very tasty.

According to the Ukrainian people's habits, lunch, dinner usually have three dishes. Head Road, two main dishes, a soup category, such as clearing dishes, potato soup, red beet soup, broth, soup and so on. Two dishes usually meat, fish, poultry, egg products, such as fried pork chops, fried steak, fried fish row, meatloaf, fried chicken and fruit duck, stuffed fish, beef crock. Three dishes are usually fruit, sweets or drinks, such as coffee, tea, ice cream and desserts. Before eating the first dish, sometimes cold, such as salads, caviar, ham and cheese. Bread eaten at the top of the main dish.

Ukrainian nation in the culinary arts is unique, "Ukrainian red soup", "Kiev patty", "capital salad", "fruit spoon-feeding" are famous Ukrainian cuisine. Ukrainians love to drink red tea and coffee throughout the year, in the summer the streets everywhere kvass drinks and beer sold in bulk, which is the main Ukrainian refreshing drinks.

Ukrainian people are very particular about the use of utensils, but also paid great attention to the dining etiquette. To glass, bowl in a tea, coffee, cocoa, while milk, should not pour too full, and accustomed to women for drinks with a teacup saucer, and the drinks are often used to send a man with a metal cup holder cup . Meal vulgar manners reflect a person bred.

在乌克兰,乌克兰人的饮食习俗与俄罗斯、白俄罗斯及波兰和捷克等东欧国家大致相同,以面食、稻米为主食,喜欢吃面包,尤其是黑面包。

饮食一年四季以土豆、卷心菜,洋葱、胡萝卜、酸黄瓜、干酪、乳制品、牛奶和酸奶油等为主。夏天,乌克兰人饮食中的蔬菜和水果比较多,但冬天只是节日里偶尔在饭桌上能见到新鲜的蔬菜和水果。当地居民还特别喜欢吃一种热气腾腾的甜馅饺子,即将奶渣或樱桃包在饺子中,煮熟后略加酸奶油调料,十分可口。

按乌克兰人的习惯,午餐、晚餐通常有3道菜。头道、二道为主菜,是热汤类,如清菜、土豆汤、红甜菜汤、肉汤、鱼汤等。二道菜一般是肉、鱼、禽、蛋制品,如煎猪排、煎牛排、炸鱼排、肉饼、炸子鸡和水果填鸭、填馅炸鱼、瓦罐牛肉。三道菜通常是水果、甜食或饮料,如咖啡、茶、冰淇淋和冰甜点。在吃头道菜前,有时有冷盘,如沙拉、鱼子酱、火腿和奶酪。面包主要在上头道菜时食用。

乌克兰民族在烹饪艺术上是独具特色的,“乌克兰红菜汤”、“基辅肉饼”、“首都沙拉”、“水果填鸭”都是闻名于世的乌克兰美食。乌克兰人一年四季喜爱饮红茶和咖啡,夏天街头到处有格瓦斯饮料和散装啤酒出售,这也是乌克兰人消暑的主要饮品。

乌克兰人对食具的使用十分讲究,同时也非常注意用餐的礼节。往玻璃杯、茶碗中斟茶、咖啡、可可、牛奶时,不应斟得太满,而且给妇女送饮料习惯于用带茶碟的茶碗,而给男人送饮料常常用带金属杯托的茶杯。用餐时举止粗俗反映一个人缺乏教养。

UKRAINE HAPPY HOLIDAY

January 1 New Year's Day (Новий рік)
New Year's Day, also known as the "new years" refers to the current calendar of January 1. But before 1911, "New Year" that is today's "Spring Festival", which is the lunar New Year. New Year's Day is a holiday in many countries of the world or regions, such as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Japan, Korea and so on. Among them China, Singapore and vacation day as a statutory holiday in Japan on vacation for six days, from years ago, on December 29 until the first of which China, Singapore and the day as a statutory holiday leave, leave Japan for six days, from years ago, December 29 day until the second year on January 3. Custom, the "New Year" major blessing to each other in various ways, greeting cards is one of the main forms.

January 7 Orthodox Christmas
Christmas in Taiwan, also known as Christmas, is a traditional festival of the church calendar, it is a celebration day Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus. On Christmas Day, most of the Catholic church will be on Christmas Eve on December 24, that is December 25 Midnight Mass held in the morning, and some Christian churches will hold caroling, and then in December 25 to celebrate Christmas ; while the other major branch of Christianity - Orthodox Christmas celebrations in the annual January 7. According to Catholic Gospels, Jesus is the Bethlehem of the Virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit pregnant after giving birth, Mary and her husband Joseph was on his way to Rome census registration. Jesus was born in a Jewish believer seems to be the Messiah prophesied in the plan to come to realize, because Bethlehem is 约瑟祖 David first family home. Christmas is also the Western world as well as many other areas of public holidays, for example: in Asia, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia and Singapore. However, the exact date of Jesus' birth is disputed.

March 8 International Women's Day (Міжнародний жіночий день)
International Women's Day is a holiday in the annual March 8 to celebrate the important contributions of women in the economic, political and social fields and made ​​great achievements established. At the same time, but also to commemorate the deaths of more than 140 workers in 1911 in New York City Triangle Factory Fire.

May 1 International Labor Day (День Праці)
International Labor Day, also known as "May Day", "International Day demonstrations," is Labor Day in most countries of the world.

May 9 Victory Day (День Перемоги)

June 28th Constitution Day (День Конституції України)

August 24 Independence Day (День незалежності України)

1月1日 元旦 (Новий рік)
  元旦,也被称为“新历年”,是指现行公历的1月1日。但在1911年之前,“元旦”即是今天的“春节”,也就是夏历新年。元旦是世界上很多国家或地区的法定假日,如中国大陆、台湾、香港、澳门、新加坡、日本、韩国等。其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第二年的1月3日。习俗方面,“元旦”主要以各种方式互相祝福,贺年卡是其中主要形式。
   
1月7日 东正教圣诞节
  圣诞节,在台湾也称作圣诞节,是教会年历的一个传统节日,它是基督徒庆祝耶稣基督诞生的庆祝日。在圣诞节,大部分的天主教教堂都会先在12月24日的平安夜,亦即12月25日凌晨举行子夜弥撒,而一些基督教会则会举行报佳音,然后在12月25日庆祝圣诞节;而基督教的另一大分支——东正教的圣诞节庆祝则在每年的1月7日。根据天主教的福音书,耶稣是伯利恒的圣母玛利亚受圣灵感孕后生下的,玛利亚和丈夫约瑟当时正在去罗马人口普查注册的路上。耶稣的出生在信徒看来是犹太教预言中的默西亚将要到来计划的实现,因为伯利恒是约瑟祖先戴维一族的家。圣诞节也是西方世界以及其它很多地区的公共假日,例如:在亚洲的香港、澳门、马来西亚和新加坡。但耶稣确切的出生日期是存在争议的。
   
3月8日 国际妇女节 (Міжнародний жіночий день)
  国际妇女节是在每年的3月8日为庆祝妇女在经济、政治和社会等领域做出的重要贡献和取得的巨大成就而设立的节日。同时,也是为了纪念在1911年美国纽约三角工厂火灾中丧生的140多名女工。
   
5月1日 国际劳动节 (День Праці)
  国际劳动节又称“五一国际劳动节”、“国际示威游行日”,是世界上大多数国家的劳动节。
   
5月9日 胜利日 (День Перемоги)
   
6月28日 宪法日 (День Конституції України)
   
8月24日 独立日 (День незалежності України)