INTERNATIONAL ARTS & CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE 國 際 藝 術 文 化 創 學 發 展 中 心

Arts Image Design - Architecture, Animals, Country, City, Cartoon, Food, Fashion, Flowers, Holidays, Kids, Map Stories, Nature, People, Sport, Travel, etc. For Purchasing or Investment Project Ideas Proposal of MOBILE APP MAP STORIES...Email to us : superkidsidea@yahoo.com.hk

PORTUGAL CULTURE

Portugal early millennium BC 1, there Celts settled in the Iberian Peninsula. After BC 140 years ago, the Romans conquered Portugal, and ruled until the 5th century Germanic tribes invaded. 711 years of Muslim invasions, still in the hands of the Catholic Church in northern Portugal only. In 1179 the area became the Kingdom of Portugal, and as part of the Muslims to regain occupied and expansion together. Portugal is in the modern European borders in 1270 in the hands of King Alfonso III completed.

Portugal is located in the historic west of the Iberian Peninsula, year-round sunshine, only sub-summer and winter. Warm and humid climate than continental countries, in July and August is too hot, spring and fall are more comfortable.

Portuguese strong sense of family, things slow three shot, like procrastination. Avoid rude exchanges among women, lack of courtesy. Not someone kind of discrimination. Among the guests speak to avoid talking about politics and government. Portuguese football is the first sport, both in the cafe, school or friends that topic, are inseparable from football.
More than 97% of the Portuguese Roman Catholic. People in northern Portugal milder temperament simple, others with sincerity, Lisbon area were more indifferent, habits and lifestyle is not much different from other Western European countries.

When the Portuguese attend a formal event dressed relatively stress. They are accustomed to late for an appointment. Despite the hot weather is also wearing a suit, and when they negotiate, should be neat shirt and tie to wear to work and social situations.

Portuguese city near the sea seafood dishes are very famous, fresh grilled fish, octopus, squid, shrimp, crab and so cheap and delicious, in addition to the typical dishes as well as potato soup, cod and so on. General can drink cold water faucet, but can not drink water.

Portuguese like bullfighting, but not in favor of the cattle killed at the venue, victory will come Matador cattle wrestled to the ground, early summer, city residents city festival, the festival of nights, people mobilized, midnight fireworks salute sound constantly , carnival may have been the next day at dawn.

Church is both an important part of traditional Portuguese culture, but also to unite the Portuguese people of faith. Those ancient and famous church is a typical representative of Portugal monuments of the country have the locals take pride in, unique or historic church.

 

葡萄牙早在公元前1千年,已有塞尔特人在伊比利亚半岛定居下来。公元前140年前后,罗马人征服了葡萄牙,并一直统治到公元5世纪日耳曼部落入侵。 711年穆斯林入侵,仅葡萄牙北部还在天主教的手里。 1179年该地区成为葡萄牙王国,并随着重新取得穆斯林所占据的部分而扩张起来。现代欧陆的葡萄牙疆界是在1270年国王阿方索三世手中完成的。

历史悠久的葡萄牙位于伊比利亚半岛西部,终年阳光普照,只分夏、冬两季。气候比欧陆国家温暖潮湿,七八月份过于炎热,春天和秋天较为舒适。

葡萄牙人家族意识强烈,凡事慢三拍,喜欢拖拖拉拉。交往当中忌对妇女粗鲁无礼,缺乏礼节。不得有人种歧视。说话当中客人要避免谈论有关政治和政府的问题。足球是葡萄牙人的第一运动,无论是在咖啡馆、学校或朋友间说的话题,都离不开足球。
葡萄牙人97%以上的信奉罗马天主教。葡萄牙北部的人性情较温和朴实,待人诚恳,里斯本区的人比较冷漠,生活习惯和生活方式与其他西欧国家没有多大差异。

葡萄牙人参加正式活动时衣着较讲究。他们约会都习惯迟到。尽管天气热也穿着西装,和他们谈判时,应上衣整洁,并在工作和社交场合戴上领带。

葡萄牙靠海的城市海鲜料理都很出名,新鲜炭烤的鱼、章鱼、乌贼、虾、螃蟹等都便宜味美,另外典型料理还有马铃薯汤、鳕鱼等。一般水龙头的冷水可以生饮,但热水不可饮用。

葡萄牙人喜欢斗牛,但不主张把牛杀死在场内,斗牛士将牛按倒在地即告胜利,初夏时节,城市居民有城市节,节日之夜,市民出动,午夜时爆竹、礼炮声不断,狂欢可一直到第二天黎明。

教堂既是葡萄牙文化传统重要的组成部分,也是葡萄牙人民信仰的凝聚地。那些古老、著名的教堂更是葡萄牙名胜古迹的典型代表,各地都有当地人引以自豪、独具特色或历史悠久的教堂。

 

PORTUGAL ARCHITECTURE

Spain and Portugal are singular multicultural convergence of all, any of the arts who are yearning to explore it personally diverse, mysterious, what is the source of the strange culture, art and design on what impact, and how to communicate from the design works out? By Spain, Portugal Landscape Association did not count clear invitation from Dalian University of Technology Press's "Landscape Design" magazine organized in 2009 November 1 to November 12 on the Iberian Peninsula were architectural and landscape study, which asked both visited the local inspection staff iconic buildings and landscape the site, but also visited the local architectural and landscape design studio, and with a cross-cultural professional conduct academic exchanges.

Manuel style (Manueline) is a Portuguese in the late 15th century to the mid-16th century, due to strongly develop sea power doctrine, and the emergence of its unique architectural style in art and architecture, named after the then ruling Manuel I .
Its architectural features that reverse the shape of a cylinder, the king and complicated heraldic and finely carved window frames, while the use of natural images, such as trimmed with shells, anchors, and other marine life on the stone. Manuel style as a product of the Portuguese maritime empire inevitably fell into decline with the decline of the empire. But it leaves the gorgeous exquisite magnificent building will never recorded once glorious maritime supremacy.

Portuguese maritime discovery to bring a wealth of resources and knowledge. The world's oldest known civilization began, many foreign artists also began to go here to create. Collision and fusion of cultures, resulting in Manuel style. This artistic style appeared in D. Manuel I (1495-1521) period, but he really was named Manuel is in the nineteenth century to show the innovative spirit of the Portuguese people.

西班牙和葡萄牙都是多元文化汇聚的奇异之都,任何学艺术的人都向往亲身探索它多元、神秘、奇异的文化源泉是什么,对艺术设计产生了哪些影响,又是如何从设计作品中传达出来的?受西班牙、葡萄牙景观没计师协会的邀清,由大连理工大学出版社旗下《景观设计》杂志社组织,于2009年11月1日至11月12日对伊比利亚半岛建筑及景观进行了考察,其问考察人员既参观了当地具有标志性的建筑和景观场地,又拜访了当地的建筑及景观设计工作室,并与之进行了跨文化的专业学术交流。

曼努埃尔风格(Manueline)是葡萄牙在15世纪晚期到16世纪中期,因极力发展海权主义,而在艺术和建筑上出现其独特的建筑风格,取名自当时执政的曼努埃尔一世。
其建筑特色在于扭转造型的圆柱、国王纹章和雕饰精细又繁复的窗框,同时运用大自然图像,如在石头上镶着贝壳、锚、海洋生物等。曼努埃尔风格作为葡萄牙海上大帝国的产物,不可避免地随着帝国的衰落走向没落。但它留下的华美绝伦气势磅礴的建筑将永远记载曾经海上霸主的辉煌。

航海大发现给葡萄牙带来了丰富的资源和知识。古老的文明开始为世界所知,许多国外艺术家也开始前往这里进行创作。文化的碰撞与融合,产生了曼努埃尔风格。这种艺术风格出现于D.曼努埃尔一世(1495-1521)时期,但是他真正被命名为曼努埃尔却是在十九世纪以显示葡萄牙人民的创新精神。

PORTUGAL FOOD

Portugal Food Culture
Another one of the most famous Portuguese culture is food, a variety of rice, potatoes, bread, meat, seafood and fish composition of its main recipe. Portuguese cod because love is known, is said to have 365 kinds (ie, every day of the year can be different) ways of cooking cod. Portuguese wine since Roman times had already started exporting. Roman Bacchus their links with Portugal. Today, this country is still known to many wine lovers, it's the wine has won several international awards.

葡萄牙饮食文化
葡萄牙另一项最出名的文化乃饮食,各种米饭、马铃薯、面包、肉类、海鲜和鱼类组成其主要食谱。葡萄牙人因钟情鳕鱼而闻名,据说有365种(即一年中每一天都可以不同)烹饪鳕鱼的方法。葡萄牙的葡萄酒自罗马时期就已经开始出口。罗马人将他们的酒神巴克斯与葡萄牙联系起来。如今这个国家仍享誉于众多葡萄酒爱好者,它的葡萄酒曾荣获多次国际大奖。

PORTUGAL Happy Holiday

葡 萄 牙 的 快 樂 假 期

January 1 New Year's Day (Ano Novo)
New Year's Day, also known as the "new years" refers to the current calendar of January 1. But before 1911, "New Year" that is today's "Spring Festival", which is the lunar New Year. New Year's Day is a holiday in many countries of the world or regions, such as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Japan, Korea and so on. Among them China, Singapore and vacation day as a statutory holiday in Japan on vacation for six days, from years ago, on December 29 until the first of which China, Singapore and the day as a statutory holiday leave, leave Japan for six days, from years ago, December 29 day until the second year on January 3. Custom, the "New Year" major blessing to each other in various ways, greeting cards is one of the main forms.

April 6 Jesus Good Friday (Sexta Feira Santa)
Christ on Good Friday, also known as: Good Friday, Christians commemorate Jesus Christ is crucified crucifixion day was a Friday before Easter. According to the Bible, Jesus in AD 33 Nisan in the Jewish calendar around at 9:00 on the 14th was crucified, died at about three p.m.. Jesus told his disciples alone to commemorate his death.

April 8 Easter (Páscoa)
Easter (the resurrection day) is an important festival west, the full moon after the vernal equinox each year on the first Sunday. Christians believe that Easter symbolizes rebirth and hope, to commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus Christ on the third day after the Day of Resurrection cross between AD 30-33 years. If the region has the Easter holidays, it is usually with the Good Friday holiday. Today, many folk customs associated with Easter such as Easter Bunny and Easter eggs are not the origin of Christianity. Jesus commanded his disciples to remember his death (Luke 22: 19, 20).

April 25th liberation anniversary (Dia da Liberdade)
Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the April 25 revolution, refers to a leftist military coup in Lisbon on April 25, 1974 occurred. Portugal now has an annual April 25 Freedom Day Memorial. Carnation Revolution ended the rule under Salazar, the longest period of the 20th century dictatorships in Western Europe, triggering a two-year social unrest "transitional period" (in Portugal called "revolutionary process between", Processo Revolucionário em Curso, referred to as PREC), and ultimately the freedom of democracy in Portugal. After the Portuguese government announced the introduction of decolonization policy, abandoned overseas colonies, leading to the Portuguese colonies have world domination and independence from Portugal. Compared with ordinary violent revolution, Portugal's Carnation revolutionaries adopt peaceful means to achieve their goals, but have not been large-scale violent conflict to achieve regime change. During the coup, the military with carnation flowers instead of guns neutron bomb, "carnation revolution" hence the name.

May 1 International Labor Day (Dia do Trabalhador) International Labor Day, also known as "May Day", "International Day demonstrations," is Labor Day in most countries of the world.

June 7 Corpus Christi (Corpo de Deus)
The body of Christ is a term used to describe the Christian holy church of Jesus Christ. Church is seen as the body of Christ, and Jesus Christ is seen as "the head of the body", "body limbs," is a member of the church. In the Roman Catholic tradition, the term "body of Christ" mainly refers specifically to share the Lord's Supper, "the Eucharist." According to Catholic doctrine, after the sacrifice ritual, turned into a real body and blood of Christ. Catholic doctrine that only through changes in raw nerve, but it is the body and blood on the matter. In the local church, Christ's body is used to describe the different parts of identity between the church and God. Christ is seen as the head of the body, while the "body limbs" - believers constitute each of the local church. "Body of limbs" Although it may seem different, or perform different functions, but they all obey a head - Christ's will. For example, some believers have speech (orator) gift, you are encouraged to use this gift to play the minister of God. True believers would become a "body of Christ" in the body do its function. The body of Christ, which means the whole Christian community, also known as the bride of Christ (the Bride of Christ), waiting for Christ's return.

June 10 Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal, de Camões e das Comunidades Portuguesas)
Day of Portugal, Camões Day and the Portuguese Overseas Day (Dia de Portugal, de Camões e das Comunidades Portuguesas), National Day of Portugal, will be held every year on June 10. The date for the country's patriotic poet Camoes the anniversary.

August 15 Assumption Day (Festa da Assunçăo)

October 5th Republic Day (Dia da Instauraçăo de República)

November 1 All Saints' Day (Dia de Todos os Santos)
All Saints Day is both Catholic and Orthodox festival. In the Catholic Church, the All Saints' Day on November 1 each year. In the Orthodox Church, and Halloween is Pentecost (Pentecost) after the first Sunday, which marks the end of the Easter quarter. All Saints is a Catholic call for all the faithful saints and martyrs, including the well-known and unknown. This festival is the first day of the month of Catholic souls in purgatory, in the name of the saint celebrated festival, which is used as a day to celebrate all been included in the saint's feast of the saint. The Roman Catholic festival (Festum omnium sanctorum) is scheduled for November 1, followed by spirits Day November 2 is the first level of the celebration, including a vigil ceremony and a celebration of 28.

December 1 fixes independence day (Dia da Restauraçăo)

December 8 Feast of the Immaculate Conception (Imaculada Conceiçăo)
Feast of the Immaculate Conception (aka the beginning of the Immaculate Conception tire section, Immaculate Conception Day), is one of the Catholic festival, the date is the annual December 8, is celebrating the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary to get the gift of a feast . Festival can be traced back from the 8th century, "Anna Maria pregnancy," Day is celebrated on December 9. The object is to celebrate Anna aged pregnancy, but also to celebrate the Virgin Mary is completely holy, there are tainted by original sin. Later, the festival reached southern Italy, Britain and France, the focus of the festival was changed to the Virgin Mary, Maria stressed from the beginning of life, had not sin tainted. Because this idea is no "Bible", and are thus in the 12th century had been some opposition from theologians, including well-known are: Sheng Nade. To the 13th century, Franciscan doctrine supports this idea is, Immaculate Conception of the Virgin began theological tire gradually being accepted. In 1477, Pope Sixtus IV approved this festival was held in Rome parish. To 1708, Pope Ke Laimeng XI of the festival as a whole church should be held feasts. Finally, Pope Leo XIII to enhance this festival and other festivals as the first, there is the 8th celebration period.

December 25 Christmas (Natal)

1月1日 元旦 (Ano Novo)
  元旦,也被称为“新历年”,是指现行公历的1月1日。但在1911年之前,“元旦”即是今天的“春节”,也就是夏历新年。元旦是世界上很多国家或地区的法定假日,如中国大陆、台湾、香港、澳门、新加坡、日本、韩国等。其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第二年的1月3日。习俗方面,“元旦”主要以各种方式互相祝福,贺年卡是其中主要形式。
   
4月6日 基督受难日 (Sexta Feira Santa)
  基督受难日,又称为:耶稣受难节,是基督教信徒纪念耶稣基督被钉在十字架上受难的日子,是复活节前一个星期五。据圣经记载,耶稣于公元33年犹太历尼散月十四日上午九时左右被钉在十字架上,于下午三时左右死去。耶稣唯独吩咐门徒要纪念他的死亡。
   
4月8日 复活节 (Páscoa)
  复活节(主复活日)是一个西方的重要节日,在每年春分月圆之后第一个星期日。基督徒认为,复活节象征着重生与希望,为纪念耶稣基督于公元30到33年之间被钉死在十字架之后第三天复活的日子。如该地区有复活节假期的话,通常与耶稣受难日一起放假。今天,许多与复活节相关的民间风俗例如复活节兔和复活节彩蛋都不是起源于基督教的。耶稣只吩咐门徒要记念自己的死亡(路加福音22:19,20)。
   
4月25日 解放的周年纪念日 (Dia da Liberdade)
  康乃馨革命(葡萄牙语:Revolução dos Cravos),又称四·二五革命,指葡萄牙首都里斯本于1974年4月25日发生的一次左派军事政变。如今葡萄牙每年4月25日有自由日纪念之。康乃馨革命终止了萨拉查统治下、20世纪西欧为期最长的独裁政权,引发了两年社会骚乱的“过渡时期”(在葡萄牙称之为“革命过程进行间”,Processo Revolucionário em Curso,简称PREC),而最终实现了葡萄牙的自由民主化。此后葡萄牙政府宣布实行非殖民化政策,放弃海外殖民地,导致世界各葡属殖民地纷纷脱离葡国统治而独立。与普通暴力革命相对比,葡萄牙的康乃馨革命者采用和平方式来达成目标,而没有经过大规模的暴力冲突来实现政权更迭。在政变期间,军人用康乃馨花来代替枪中子弹,“康乃馨革命”这个名字便由此而来。
   
5月1日 国际劳动节 (Dia do Trabalhador) 国际劳动节又称“五一国际劳动节”、“国际示威游行日”,是世界上大多数国家的劳动节。
   
6月7日 圣体节 (Corpo de Deus)
  基督的身体是基督徒用来描述耶稣基督的神圣教会的一个术语。教会被看作基督的身体,而耶稣基督被看作“身体的头”,“身体的肢体”就是教会的成员。 在罗马天主教传统中,术语“基督的身体”主要是特指圣餐中分享的“圣体”。根据天主教教义,献祭仪式之后, 变质成为基督真正的身体和血。天主教教义认为原料不仅经过神经上的改变,而且更是在物质上的身体和血。 在地方教会中,基督的身体被用于描述不同地方教会与神之间的同一性。基督被看作身体的头,而“身体的肢体”——信徒构成各个地方的教会。“身体的肢体”虽然可能看来不同,或执行不同的功用,但是他们全都服从一个头——基督的意志。例如,某个信徒有演说(orator)的恩赐,就被鼓励使用这个恩赐,担当神的用人。 如此信徒就成为“基督的身体”中尽其功用的肢体。 基督的身体,意指全体的基督徒群体,也被称为基督的新妇(the Bride of Christ),等待基督的回来。
   
6月10日 葡萄牙日 (Dia de Portugal, de Camões e das Comunidades Portuguesas)
  葡萄牙日、贾梅士日暨葡侨日(Dia de Portugal, de Camões e das Comunidades Portuguesas),葡萄牙的国庆节,定于每年的6月10日。该日为该国爱国诗人贾梅士的忌日。
   
8月15日 圣母升天节 (Festa da Assunçăo)
   
10月5日 共和国日 (Dia da Instauraçăo de República)
   
11月1日 诸圣节 (Dia de Todos os Santos)
  诸圣节是天主教和东正教都有的节日。在天主教中,诸圣节在每年的11月1日。在东正教中,万圣节是圣灵降临节(Pentecost)之后的第一个星期日,因而标志着复活节季度的结束。诸圣是一个天主教称呼,用于所有忠诚的圣者和殉道者,包括知名的和不知名的。这个节日是天主教的炼灵月的首日,是以圣者的名义庆祝的节日,而这日是用作庆祝所有被列入圣品的圣人的瞻礼。罗马天主教将节日(Festum omnium sanctorum)定于11月1日,紧接着是11月2日的诸灵节,是第一等级的庆典,包含一个守夜礼和一个八日庆期。
   
12月1日 修复独立日子 (Dia da Restauraçăo)
   
12月8日 圣母无染原罪瞻礼 (Imaculada Conceiçăo)
  圣母无染原罪瞻礼(又名圣母无原罪始胎节、圣母无原罪日),是天主教节庆之一,日期是每年的12月8日,乃庆祝圣母玛利亚获得无原罪的恩赐的一个瞻礼。 节日可追溯自8世纪的「安纳怀孕玛丽亚」,庆祝日是12月9日。庆祝的对象是安纳老年怀孕,也庆祝圣母玛丽亚为完全圣洁,没有受原罪所玷染。后来节日传到意大利南部、英国及法国,节日的重点对象改变为圣母玛丽亚,强调玛丽亚从生命开始,巳不受原罪玷染。由于此思想没有《圣经》根据,故在12世纪时曾受到一些神学家的反对,其中著名的有:圣纳德。到13世纪时,由于方济各会支持此为教义思想,圣母始胎无原罪的神学思想逐渐被接受。在1477年,教宗西斯笃四世批准此节日在罗马教区举行。到1708年,教宗克莱孟十一世把节日定为整个教会应举行的庆节。最后,教宗良十三世提升此节日为第一等节庆,有8日庆期。
   
12月25日 圣诞节 (Natal)