Poland (POLAND)

Area: 312,685 sq km

Population: 38.6 million

Capital: Warsaw (WARSAW)

National Day : May 3

Official language: Polish

Poland is located in Central Europe , the West German neighbors to the south and the Czech Republic,

Slovakia , bordering to the east , Russia , Lithuania , Belarus , Ukraine, north near the Baltic Sea.

Major cities and tourist attraction

Warsaw (Warsaw) was established in AD 13 century , the history of Poland has been the political, administrative center , is now a national capitals and major provincial cities . After the war all the monuments of the old city are in accordance with the 14 to the 18th century as it rebuilt .

Today's Warsaw Old Town and New Town remains a layout . Various historical monuments , historical sites are concentrated in the old city , especially the magnificent palace , a huge church , a variety of watchtower , castles , attracting tourists from all over the world.

Warsaw Palace , also known as the Warsaw Castle, Millennium National Historic traditional Polish cultural symbol , but also witness the rise and fall of national history . Building fantastic , magnificent decoration .

The oldest buildings in the palace is built in the Gothic half of the 14 century, a large courtyard . In the modern new city , boarded the Palace of Culture and Science, the top 230 meters high , overlooking the surrounding , sweeping views of Warsaw .

Krakow (Krakow) is Poland's largest cultural , scientific, industrial and tourist center , was the capital of Poland .

Poland is one of the largest monuments in Poland 's largest cities and tourist city . Filled with medieval style Krakow , Poland's most beautiful city.

Old Town Square in the center of the ancient city , built in the central square of 16 century S ukiennice market , the lower the market operates souvenirs shop , wood products , embroid

 

bō lán ( P O L A N D )
波蘭 (POLAND)
miàn jī : 3 1 2 , 6 8 5 píng fāng gōng lǐ
面積: 312,685平方公里

rén kǒu : 3 , 8 6 0 wàn
人口: 3,860 萬

shǒu dū : huá shā ( W A R S A W )
首都: 華沙 (WARSAW)

guó qìng rì : 5 yuè 3 rì
國慶日: 5月3日

guān fāng yǔ yán : bō lán yǔ
官方語言: 波蘭語


bō lán wèi yú ōu zhōu zhōng bù , xī yǔ dé guó wèi lín , nán yǔ jié kè 、 sī luò fá kè jiē rǎng , dōng lín é luó sī 、 lì táo wǎn 、 bái é luó sī 、 wū kè lán , běi bīn bō luó de hǎi 。
波 蘭 位 於 歐 洲 中 部 , 西 與 德 國 為 鄰 , 南 與 捷 克 、 斯 洛 伐 克 接 壤 , 東 鄰 俄 羅 斯 、 立 陶 宛 、 白 俄 羅 斯 、 烏 克 蘭 , 北 瀕 波 羅 的 海。

zhǔ yào lǚ yóu chéng shì hé jǐng diǎn
主 要 旅 遊 城 市 和 景 點
huá shā ( W a r s a w ) jiàn lì yú gōng yuán 1 3 shì jì , lì shǐ shàng yì zhí shì bō lán de zhèng zhì 、 xíng zhèng zhōng xīn , xiàn wèi guó jiā shǒu dū hé zhǔ yào shěng huì chéng shì 。 zhàn hòu suǒ yǒu jiù chéng de jì niàn jiàn zhù dōu yī zhào 1 4 zhì 1 8 shì jì yuán yàng chóng xīn xiū jiàn 。 jīn tiān de huá shā shì yī rán bǎo chí zhe lǎo chéng hé xīn chéng de bù jú 。 gè zhǒng lì shǐ jì niàn wù 、 míng shèng gǔ jì dà dōu jí zhōng zài lǎo chéng qū , tè bié shì hóng wěi de gōng diàn 、 jù dà de jiào táng , gè shì gè yàng de jiàn lóu 、 chéng bǎo děng , xī yǐn zhe shì jiè gè dì de yóu kè 。
華沙 (Warsaw) 建 立 於 公 元 1 3世紀,歷 史 上 一 直 是 波 蘭 的 政 治 、行 政 中 心,現 為 國 家 首 都 和 主 要 省 會 城 市 。 戰 後 所 有 舊 城 的 紀 念 建 築 都 依 照 1 4至18世 紀 原 樣 重 新 修 建 。 今 天 的 華 沙 市 依 然 保 持 著 老 城 和 新 城 的 佈 局 。 各 種 歷 史 紀 念 物 、名 勝 古 蹟 大 都 集 中 在 老 城 區 , 特 別 是 宏 偉 的 宮 殿 、 巨 大 的 教 堂 ,各 式 各 樣 的 箭 樓 、 城 堡 等,吸 引 著 世 界 各 地 的 遊 客。


huá shā wáng gōng , yě chēng wéi huá shā chéng bǎo , shì bō lán qiān nián guó jiā lì shǐ chuán tǒng de wén huà xiàng zhēng , yě shì mín zú xīng shuāi shǐ de jiàn zhèng zhě 。 jiàn zhù měi lún měi huàn , zhuāng xiū fù lì táng huáng 。 wáng gōng zuì gǔ lǎo de jiàn zhù wù shì 1 4 shì jì shàng bàn yè jiàn zào de gē tè shì dà tíng yuàn 。 zài xiàn dài huà de xīn chéng qū , dēng shàng 2 3 0 mǐ gāo de wén huà kē xué gōng dǐng duān , yuǎn tiào sì zhōu , huá shā měi jǐng yì lǎn wú yí 。
華 沙 王 宮 ,也 稱 為 華 沙 城 堡 ,是 波 蘭 千 年 國 家 歷 史 傳 統 的 文 化 象 征 ,也 是 民 族 興 衰 史 的 見 證 者 。 建 築 美 侖 美 奐 , 裝 修 富 麗 堂 皇 。 王 宮 最 古 老 的 建 築 物 是 1 4 世 紀 上 半 葉 建 造 的 哥 特 式 大 庭 院 。 在 現 代 化 的 新 城 區 , 登 上 2 3 0 米 高 的 文 化 科 學 宮 頂 端 , 遠 眺 四 週 , 華 沙 美 景 一 覽 無 遺 。

kè lā kē fū ( K r a k o w ) shì bō lán zuì dà de wén huà 、 kē xué 、 gōng yè yǔ lǚ yóu zhōng xīn , céng shì bō lán de shǒu dū 。 yě shì bō lán gǔ jì zuì duō de chéng shì hé bō lán zuì dà de lǚ yóu chéng shì zhī yī 。 mí màn zhe zhōng shì jì fēng qíng de kè lā kē fū , bō lán zuì měi lì de chéng shì 。 jiù chéng qū yǐ gǔ chéng guǎng chǎng wèi zhōng xīn , guǎng chǎng zhōng yāng wèi jiàn yú 1 6 shì jì de S u k i e n n i c e shì chǎng , shì chǎng xià céng jīng yíng zhe gè shì jì niàn pǐn shāng diàn , yǐ mù zhì pǐn 、 cì xiù 、 pí gé wèi zhǔ , lóu shàng zé shì guó lì bó wù guǎn 。
克 拉 科 夫(Krakow)是 波 蘭 最 大 的 文 化 、 科 學 、 工 業 與 旅 遊 中 心 , 曾 是 波 蘭 的 首 都 。 也 是 波 蘭 古 蹟 最 多 的 城 市 和 波 蘭 最 大 的 旅 遊 城 市 之 一 。 瀰 漫 著 中 世 紀 風 情 的 克 拉 科 夫 , 波 蘭 最 美 麗 的 城 市 。舊 城 區 以 古 城 廣 場 為 中 心 , 廣 場 中 央 為 建 於 1 6 世 紀 的 S u k i e n n i c e 市 場 , 市 場 下 層 經 營 著 各 式 紀 念 品 商 店 , 以 木 製 品 、 刺 繡 、 皮 革 為 主 , 樓 上 則 是 國 立 博 物 館。

 

 

 

 

POLAND CULTURE

Polish family is one of the most ancient peoples of Europe, is a West Slavic department.

In ancient times, the Vistula and the Oder River basin is home to a group of Lech people who is Polish ethnic ancestry. According to historical research, in the early 9th century and 10th century, Gu Bolan tribe has been established in the land of their most junior national organizations. Since then, Gu Bolan tribe chiefs expanding its sphere of influence. In AD 966, the formal establishment of the Polish National Polish, Poland at this time has become a multi-ethnic country, it is one of the great powers Slavic countries. In many subsequent centuries, because of the Polish nobility rulers continue to implement expansionist policy, coupled with Poland was divided several times and changing borders of Poland after World War II, Poland becomes owns more than 10 nationalities, and Polish family-oriented country.

Poland accounted for 98% of the total ethnic population, accounting for 0.7% of Ukrainians, Belarusians 0.5%, and the rest of Armenians, Lithuanians, Germans, Jews, and so on. And in 1931 (based on the year a survey), only 68.9% of Poland Poland tribe of the total population, Ukrainians, Jews and Belarusians have accounted for 13.9 percent, respectively, 8.6% and 5.4%.

Since the 1990s, the Polish government to continue to implement a proactive minority policy, more attention to minority issues, especially focusing on the interests of minorities doubled. For example, to play down the problem and protect the interests of ethnic minorities, the Polish minority issues have been originally placed under the Ministry of the Interior is responsible for handling the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Culture, the Commission established a minority in parliament, allowing the minority to establish their own political organizations and participation in parliamentary or presidential elections at all levels (political organization of ethnic minorities into the Polish parliament unrestricted lowest percentage of votes and other Polish electoral law provisions to take care of the interests of minorities), allowing the development of minority culture and education, allowing to maintain and respect for minorities customs and so on.

波兰族是欧洲最古老的民族之一,属西方斯拉夫系。

远古时期,在维斯瓦河流域和奥得河流域居住着一群莱赫人,他们便是波兰族人的祖先。据历史考证,在9世纪末和10世纪初,古波兰族人已在这块土地上建立了自己最初级的国家组织。此后,古波兰族人的首领们不断扩张自己的势力范围。公元966年,波兰人正式建立波兰国家,此时的波兰已成为一个多民族国家,也属斯拉夫国家中的大国之一。在随后的诸多世纪中,由于波兰贵族统治者继续推行扩张主义政策,加上波兰几度被瓜分以及第二次世界大战后的波兰疆界的变更,波兰则变成拥有10多个民族的、且以波兰族为主的国家。

波兰族人占全国总人口的98%,乌克兰人占0.7%,白俄罗斯人占0.5%,其余的为亚美尼亚人、立陶宛人、日尔曼人、犹太人等。而1931年(根据当年的一次调查显示), 波兰族人仅占波兰全国总人口的68.9%,乌克兰人、犹太人和白俄罗斯人却分别占13.9%、8.6%和5.4%。

20世纪90年代以来,波兰政府继续实行积极的少数民族政策, 更加重视少数民族问题, 尤其加倍注重少数民族的利益。例如, 为了淡化民族问题和维护少数民族的利益,波兰已将原由内务部负责处理的少数民族问题划归文化部管辖,在议会中设立了少数民族委员会,允许各少数民族建立自己的政治组织并参与各级议会或总统竞选(以少数民族的政治组织进入波兰议会不受波兰选举法最低得票率的限制等规定来照顾少数民族利益),允许发展少数民族的文化教育, 允许保持并尊重少数民族的风俗习惯等。

POLAND ARCHITECTURE

Portland Museum was pure white, hollow surface pattern design inspired by "a constant Scissors" Polish folk art. This makes the whole building looks like a box labeled irregular traditional folk paper-cut. The most amazing is that when night falls, the whole building will show a completely different look and day. In this case, colored lights inside the pavilion will diffuse out through the paper-cut patterns, and sketched out the pavilion chic styling, the paper-cut effect on its head.

Polish National Museum - the building exterior
This will produce a rich visual experience outside of the building by the interwoven patterns are composed, the sun can enter the hall through the cracks. When dusk falls, becomes

Polish National Museum
Change the color of the interior light to penetrate paper-cut patterns, so that the pavilion showing a different color. It also has a plurality of inner surfaces, on the one hand constitute folded "paper cutting plate", on the other hand constitute a fun geometry, flexible space can be divided into different parts creatively for exhibitions, concerts and other internal needs divided into different functional areas. The main exhibition hall lighting will create an effect of scattered light and shade, the internal walls can be used as screens, and other aspects of social life in Poland playing video. Meanwhile, the pavilion's design also full of humanity, such as in the open-air restaurant at for queuing visitors a shade venue.

Fusion of traditional Polish folk art and modern fashion elements, a beautiful paper-cut construction is about to debut the Huangpu River.

波兰馆呈纯白色,表面镂空的花纹设计灵感来自“一刀剪不断”的波兰民间剪纸艺术。这让整个建筑看上去就像是一个贴上了民间传统剪纸的不规则的盒子。最奇妙的是,当夜幕降临后,整个建筑将呈现和白天完全不同的样子。此时,展馆内的彩色灯光会穿透剪纸图案漫射出来,勾勒出展馆别致的造型,将剪纸的效果发挥得淋漓尽致。

波兰国家馆 - 建筑外观
这座将产生丰富视觉体验的建筑物外部由相互交织的剪纸图案所组成,阳光可以透过缝隙进入大厅。当黄昏降临,变

波兰国家馆
换色泽的室内光线穿透剪纸图案,使展馆呈现出不同的色彩。它还具有多个表面,一方面构成折叠的“剪纸板”,另一方面又构成有趣的几何形状的内表,空间灵活,可以创造性地分割成不同部分,为展览、音乐会和其它内部需要分割成不同的功能区域。主展馆的灯光将营造一种明暗错落的效果,内部的墙体也可以作为荧幕,播放波兰社会生活等方面的视频。同时,展馆的设计同​​样充满着人性化,比如在开放式的餐厅处为排队的游客提供了遮阳的场地。

融合波兰传统民间剪纸艺术和现代时尚元素,一座美丽的剪纸建筑即将亮相黄浦江畔。

POLAND FOOD

Poles eating habits and other Eastern European countries were similar. They love to eat grilled, boiled, braised dishes taste lighter. In beverages, they also drink coffee and tea. At the time of drinking tea, mostly Poles love to add a slice of lemon, and do not like tea too thick. In terms of food taboos, mainly Poles do not eat pickles and steamed dishes. Poles in interpersonal really like a dinner party. When dinner guests, the Poles have a lot of stress.

Polish soup before a meal, have a kind of beet soup soup (barszcz), Egg cold soup (chtodnik), Korea soup (kapusniak), barley soup (krupnik) and some barley soup plus eggs and sausage (zurek ). There are many types of main meal, common are: cabbage roll (gotabki), the bag of rice and meat; tonkatsu (kotlet schabowy); pizza and soft cheese (Nalesniki); and all kinds of foreign dumplings (pierogi), types of meat, potatoes, cheese or blueberries.

Various flavors of bacon Polish specialty. In particular kiełbasa sausage, made ​​with traditional recipe, and then use juniper or fruit tree branches to BBQ in the world are welcome. Gin stuffing "Hunter sausage" (kiełbasa myśliwska), garlic and other spices produced "Li Sika" sausage (kiełbasa lisiecka) to Polish tourists definitely worth tasting. Pickled and smoked ham, poultry, pork, steak and bacon are impressive. In addition, different meats or game produced by Polish meatloaf (pâtés) is also delicious.

Poland enjoyed a variety of delicious breads reputation in the real world, like white bread, rye bread, whole wheat bread, etc., fillings have raisins, prunes, sesame and poppy seeds, etc., innumerable.

There are many ways to approach meat, grilled, stewed, fried, baked, etc. Hot food when you can point salty marinade, cold when you can with mustard, horseradish Rong, pickled mushrooms or pickled cucumbers.

Polish dumplings world-famous, especially pierogi, filled with minced meat, chopped sauerkraut with mushrooms, dried cheese or fruit fillings such as fried donut made​​. Where there is a particularly popular, "Ruthenian dumplings" (pierogi ruskie), based on cheese, potatoes and fried onions for the stuffing. Other popular vegetarian dumplings there naleśniki pancakes, steamed dumplings made ​​with potato flour (pyzy) and stuffed dumplings made ​​with fruit (knedle).

Poland is a traditional dessert type snacks and cakes. They are usually produced by fermentation of the dough, but sometimes a Swiss roll type of practice poppy seed, dried fruits and nuts stuffing. Other desserts include mazurka cookies (mazurek), apple pudding (szarlotka), cheese cake (sernik) and gingerbread (piernik) and so on. Rose sugar donuts (pączki) is also very popular.

Poland's wine culture

Polish vodka (wodka) reputation in the world, "boutique vodka" (wyborowa), "cow grass vodka" (zubrowka), "senior vodka" (luksusowa) and "Bell Wei Deer vodka" (belvedere) brand almost anywhere are ringing. From the ancient historical record production of alcoholic beverages in Poland specialty beer first, then mead (okowita), Poland shochu card" (palikotowka) (formerly known as the water spirits of life) is vodka.

波兰人的饮食习惯与其他东欧国家大致相似。他们爱吃烤、煮、烩的菜肴,口味较淡。在饮料方面,他们还爱喝咖啡和红茶。在饮用红茶之时,波兰人大都爱加入一片柠檬,并且不喜欢茶水过浓。在饮食禁忌方面,波兰人主要不吃酸黄瓜和清蒸的菜肴。波兰人在人际交往中非常喜欢请客吃饭。在宴请客人时,波兰人有不少的讲究。

波兰人吃饭时先喝汤,汤的种类有甜菜汤(barszcz)、蛋花冷汤(chtodnik)、高丽菜汤(kapusniak)、大麦汤(krupnik)有的大麦汤还加上蛋和香肠(zurek )。主餐的种类有不少,常见的有:高丽菜卷(gotabki),内包米和肉;炸猪排(kotlet schabowy);薄饼和软起司(Nalesniki);以及各式的洋水饺(pierogi),种类有肉、马铃薯、起司或蓝莓等。

多种口味的熏肉是波兰的特产。特别是kiełbasa香肠,以传统秘方制作,然后用杜松或果树的树枝来熏烤,在全世界都受到欢迎。杜松子馅的“猎人香肠”(kiełbasa myśliwska)、大蒜等调料制作的“利斯卡”香肠(kiełbasa lisiecka)绝对值得来波兰的游客品尝。腌制和熏制的火腿、家禽、猪肉、牛排和咸肉都令人赞叹。另外,由不同肉类或用野味制作的波兰式肉饼(pâtés)也同样美味。

波兰各式各样美味的面包在世界上享有真正的美誉,像白面包、黑面包、全麦面包等等,馅料有葡萄干、西梅干、芝麻和罂粟籽等等,数之不尽。

肉类的做法有很多方式,有烤、炖、煎、焙等。热食的时候可以点上咸的卤汁,冷食的时候可以配以芥末、山葵蓉、腌蘑菇或腌黄瓜。

波兰的饺子世界闻名,特别是pierogi,是用填满了肉末,剁碎的酸菜与蘑菇、干奶酪或水果等馅料的面圈煎炸而成。其中有一款特别受欢迎,“鲁塞尼亚饺子”(pierogi ruskie),是以奶酪、马铃薯和炸洋葱为馅。其他流行素食饺子还有naleśniki烙饼、用土豆粉做的蒸饺(pyzy)和用水果做馅的饺子(knedle)。

波兰传统甜品类型是点心和糕饼。它们通常是用发酵的面团制作,但有时也会是罂粟籽、干果和果仁馅的瑞士卷类型的做法。其他的甜品包括马祖卡甜饼(mazurek),苹果布丁(szarlotka)、奶酪蛋糕(sernik)和姜饼(piernik)等。玫瑰糖甜甜圈(pączki)也很受欢迎。

波兰的酒文化

波兰伏特加(wodka)在全世界享有盛誉,“精品伏特加”(wyborowa)、“牛草伏特加”(zubrowka)、“高级伏特加” (luksusowa)和“贝尔维德尔伏特加”(belvedere)的牌子几乎在任何地方都是响当当的。从历史记载中古老的波兰特产酒饮料的生产先是啤酒、蜂蜜酒(okowita)、波兰烧酒“帕利科托夫卡”(palikotowka)(旧称生命之水烈酒)之后才是伏特加酒。

POLAND CHRISTMAS

In Poland, Advent is the beginning of Christmas Time. It's a time when people try to be peaceful and remember the real reason for Christmas. People try not to have excess of anything. Some people give up their favorite foods or drinks and parties and discos are not widely held. Some people also go to Church quite frequently. There is the tradition of the 'roraty', special masses (or communion services) held at dawn and dedicated to Mary for receiving the good news from the angel Gabriel.

During Advent, people also prepare their houses for Christmas. There's lots of cleaning and people wash their windows and clean their carpets very thoroughly. Everything must be clean for Christmas day!

Before Christmas, children in schools and preschools take part in "Jasełka" (Nativity Plays). They are very popular and often more secular than religious. The Christmas story is also sometime put into modern times.

Poland is a largely catholic country and Christmas Eve is a very important and busy day. It's now often the most important day over Christmas - even though it's not a holiday but Christmas and the 26th December are holidays! Traditionally it was day of fasting and abstinence (not eating anything) and meat is not normally allowed to be eaten in any form.

Christmas Eve is known as Wigilia (pronounced vee-GHEE-lee-uh). Traditionally, the house is also cleaned and everyone wore their best festive clothes. The main Christmas meal is eaten in the evening and is called "Kolacja wigilijna" (Christmas Eve supper). It's traditional that no food is eaten until the first star is seen in the sky! So children look at the night sky to spot the first star!

On the table there are 12 dishes - they are meant to give you good luck for the next 12 months. The meal is traditionally meat free, this is to remember the animals who took take of the baby Jesus in the manger. Everyone has to eat or at least try some of each dish. For catholics the 12 dishes symbolize Jesus's 12 disciples. Like in many Catholic countries, Christmas Eve is often a 'fasting day' meaning that some people don't eat anything until after sunset (when the Church day officially ends). So that's where the custom of the first star come from. Some people in central Poland say that at midnight the animals can talk.

在波蘭,降臨是聖誕節的開始。這是人們試圖和平的時候,記住聖誕節的真正原因。人們盡量不要超過任何東西。有些人放棄自己喜歡的食物或飲料,派對和迪斯科舞廳並不廣泛。有些人也經常去教堂。有“羅拉”的傳統,特別群眾(或交流服務)在黎明舉行,致力於瑪麗接收天使加百列的好消息。

在復臨時,人們也準備聖誕節的房子。有很多清潔,人們洗窗戶,徹底清洗地毯。聖誕節那天一切都必須乾淨!

在聖誕節前,學校和幼兒園的孩子參加“耶穌”(Nativity Plays)。他們非常受歡迎,往往比宗教更世俗化。聖誕節的故事也有時候會被放進現代。

在學校或工作場所橘子的氣味被廣泛認為是聖誕節的時刻即將開始!

波蘭主要是天主教國家,聖誕節前夕是一個非常重要和繁忙的日子。現在通常是聖誕節最重要的一天 - 即使這不是假期,但聖誕節和十二月二十六日是假期!傳統上,禁食和禁慾的日子(不吃東西),通常不允許肉類以任何形式食用。

聖誕節前夕被稱為Wigilia(發音為vee-GHEE-lee-uh)。傳統上,房子也是清潔的,每個人都穿著最好的節日服裝。主要的聖誕餐在晚上吃,被稱為“Kolacja wigilijna”(平安夜晚餐)。傳統上,只有在天空中看到第一顆星星之前,才能吃到食物。所以孩子們看著夜空找到第一顆星星!

桌子上有12道菜 - 它們是為了在未來12個月給你帶來好運。這餐傳統上是無肉的,這是要記住在馬槽裡拿耶穌寶寶的動物。每個人都必須吃,或者至少嘗試每道菜的一些。對於天主教徒來說,12道菜象徵著耶穌的十二個門徒。就像在許多天主教國家一樣,平安夜通常是一個“禁食的日子”,意思是有些人在日落之後(教會日正式結束)才吃東西。所以這就是第一顆恆星的習俗來自哪裡波蘭中部的一些人說,午夜時分,動物們可以說話。