Moldova

Republic of Moldova landlocked country in northern South-Eastern Europe, is a landlocked country, bordering with Romania and Ukraine, is a temperate continental climate. Chisinau. Domestic distribution of plains and hills and white, central highlands, two-thirds of the land is chernozem. Northern forest steppe zone and the subordinate, the southern grasslands. But most numerous short rivers Dniester and Prut River to the territory of two rivers. Abundant groundwater resources, about 2,200 natural springs. Former Soviet republics, became independent in 1991, is now the CIS member states. Moldova is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible state, uphold democracy and political pluralism conditions, the implementation of the presidential system, separation of powers, the coexistence of public and private ownership of the social system. The country does not allow foreign troops are stationed.

The Republic of Moldova has worked in the Soviet era known as the "Autonomous Republic of Moldavia", "Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic." June 1990 was renamed "the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic", May 23, 1991 changed its name to "The Republic of Moldova." August 27, 1991 declaration of independence.

Moldova - the capital city - the capital of the Republic of Moldova is Chisinau.
Chisinau is located in the Baker River tributary of the Dniester River, an area of ??over 200 square kilometers, is the country's political, economic, scientific and cultural center of the existing urban population of 794,000 (1 January 2012). Aerial view from a height, Chisinau city like a blooming flower stone, urban construction constitutes a stone flower five petals. Most of the buildings in Chisinau city area is built of pure white granite stone. Chisinau therefore get the "white city, stone flower" in the world.

The Republic of Moldova is located in the northeast of the Lower Danube in Europe in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and the southern edge of the plain areas, the majority of Homeland between the Prut and Dniester rivers. Eastern and northern borders with Ukraine, and Romania to the west across the Prut River, adjacent to the south of the Black Sea, not far into the distance.

Moldova was a Soviet republic westernmost country area of ??33,800 square kilometers, 350 kilometers north to south and from east to west width of 150 km, shaped like upside down in bunches, is a small country in Europe.

Territory of the Republic of Moldova is characterized by prominent landscape criss-cross the hills and valleys. There are picturesque hills, more post plains, dense forests and wide grasslands soft. The country can be divided into three natural geographical regions: forest area, forest-steppe and steppe zones. Plateau, hilly plains of Belize, endless grasslands in southern Moldova and the Dniester River lowlands as the ladder towards the Danube and the Black Sea as extending from north to south.

The Republic of Moldova is located in the Russian plains and the Carpathian transition zone, temperate continental climate. Atlantic cyclone blowing a lot to Moldova moist, warm air, but sometimes filled with water vapor sent Mediterranean heat waves, as well as generate Moldova summer rainstorm. Blowing from the southeast and often a lot of dry gas will cause droughts, and can cause early fall or late fall cold arctic cold little intrusion of Moldova. This gives the impression that the climate is severe hot long summer, autumn and warm lasting less snow in the winter is not too cold.

From the overall level of speaking, the Republic of Moldova lacks natural resources, the lack of hard coal, iron ore, oil and gas.
80 percent of Moldova's land area is high-yield black soil, suitable for growing crops, grapes, sugar, cooking oil and tobacco, the Soviet Union was one of the production bases of fruits and berries, corn, sunflower and vegetables crops. National acreage of about 1.85 million hectares, accounting for 50% of the sown area of ??grain, cash crops accounted for 22%. The main crops are corn, wheat, barley, rye; main cash crops are tobacco, sugar beet, soybean, sunflower, flax and hemp. Sunflower is one of the most important economic crops are grown throughout the territory, especially in multi-southeast. Farming accounts for 70% of total agricultural output value. Viticulture and horticulture industry plays an important role in agriculture. Grape growing area of ??253,000 hectares, accounting for over 30% of the Soviet grape acreage, fruit growing area of ??172,000 hectares. Vineyards mainly in southern and central, orchards, mainly in the north and southeast. Grape and tobacco production ranks first in the Soviet republics, the fruit and sugar beet production in the first three. In addition, Moldova herbs, flavors, rose oil, chamomile oil, lavender oil, sage oil, renowned international markets.

New Year is the most solemn of the people of Moldova grand festival. New Year's folk still remain today. New Year's night, every household should leave the door a crack, old people look forward to the years slip away from under the door, comes new hope.

Moldovan people are very hospitable, often drink wine when entertaining guests. In this case, the owner's hospitality guests should not refuse but should the owner Cheers, gulp, to show the owner of friendship and respect. When eating at the same table, the owner taboo others playing cutlery or tableware bump, reach for a bite of soup dish is very unsightly. Take off in someone else's home, without the owner permission, not intruded into the master bedroom or sitting on the bed, it is extremely impolite.
Moldovans taboo number 13, which is considered a symbol of danger and death, but instead like the number 7 that 7 can bring success and happiness.

 

 

摩尔多瓦共和国位于东南欧北部的内陆国,是一个内陆国家,与罗马尼亚和乌克兰接壤,属温带大陆性气候。首都基希讷乌。境内平原和丘陵相间分布,中部为高地,三分之二的土地为黑钙土。北部和中部属森林草原带,南部为草原。河流众多但大部分短小,德涅斯特河和普鲁特河为境内两大河流。地下水资源丰富,约有 2200个天然泉。原为苏联加盟共和国,1991年独立,现为独联体成员国。摩尔多瓦是一个主权、独立、统一和不可分割的国家,坚持政治多元化条件下的民主,实行总统制、三权分立,公有和私有制并存的社会制度。该国不允许外国军队驻扎。

摩尔多瓦共和国在苏联时期曾先后称为“摩尔达维亚自治共和国”、“摩尔达维亚苏维埃社会主义共和国”。1990年6月改名为“摩尔多瓦苏维埃社会主义共和国”,1991年5月23日改名为“摩尔多瓦共和国”。1991年8月27日宣布独立。

摩尔多瓦-首都-摩尔多瓦共和国的首都是基希讷乌。
基希讷乌位于德涅斯特河支流贝克河畔,面积为200多平方公里,是全国的政治、经济、科学和文化中心,现有城市人口79.4万(2012年1月1日)。从高空鸟瞰,基希讷乌市好似一朵盛开的石头花,城市建筑构成了石头花的5个花瓣。基希讷乌市区内的大多数建筑是用纯白色的花岗岩石料建成。基希讷乌因此获得“白色的城市,石雕的花”的美誉。

摩尔多瓦共和国位于欧洲巴尔干半岛东北部多瑙河下游,东欧平原南部边缘地区,绝大部分国土介于普鲁特河和德涅斯特河之间。东、北部与乌克兰接壤,西隔普鲁特河与罗马尼亚毗邻,南部不远遥望黑海。

摩尔多瓦曾是苏联最西部的一个加盟共和国,全国面积为33800平方公里,南北长350公里,东西宽150公里,形如倒挂的葡萄串,是欧洲小国。

摩尔多瓦共和国境内突出的地貌特点是丘陵和谷地纵横交错。境内有风景如画的丘陵、多岗平原、广柔草原和茂密森林。全国可以分为三个自然地理区域:森林区、森林草原区和草原区。高原、丘陵起伏的伯利兹平原、一望无际的摩尔多瓦南部草原和德涅斯特河下游低地像阶梯一样由北向南朝多瑙河和黑海延伸。

摩尔多瓦共和国地处俄罗斯平原与喀尔巴阡山交接地带,属于温带大陆性气候。大西洋气旋向摩尔多瓦吹来大量湿润、温暖的空气,但有时也会送来充满水气的地中海热浪,以至生成摩尔多瓦的夏季暴雨。从东南方向吹来的大量干燥气流又常常会引起干旱,而能够造成早秋或晚秋寒流的北极冷空气很少入侵摩尔多瓦。这种气候给人的感觉是,严热漫长的夏季、温暖持久的秋季和不太冷的少雪冬季。

从总体水平上讲,摩尔多瓦共和国自然资源贫乏,缺少硬煤、铁矿、石油和天然气。
摩尔多瓦国土面积的80%是黑土高产田,适宜农作物生长,盛产葡萄、食糖、食油和烟草等,曾是苏联水果和浆果、玉米、向日葵和蔬菜等农作物的生产基地之一。全国播种面积约185万公顷,谷类占播种面积的50%,经济作物占22%。主要农作物有玉米、冬小麦、大麦、裸麦;主要经济作物有烟草、甜菜、大豆、向日葵、亚麻和大麻。向日葵是最重要的经济作物之一,全境均有种植,尤以东南部为多。种植业占农业总产值的70%。葡萄种植业和园艺业在农业中占有重要地位。葡萄种植面积为25.3万公顷,占苏联葡萄种植面积的30%以上,水果种植面积为17.2万公顷。葡萄园主要分布在南部和中部,果园主要在北部和东南部。葡萄和烟草产量在苏联各加盟共和国中居首位,水果和甜菜产量居第3位。另外,摩尔多瓦的草药、香精、玫瑰油、母菊油、熏衣草油、鼠尾草油等享誉国际市场。

新年是摩尔多瓦人民最隆重的盛大节日。过新年的民俗仍旧保留至今。新年前的夜晚,家家户户的房门都要留一条缝,人们企盼旧的岁月从门缝里悄悄溜走,新的希望随之而来。

摩尔多瓦人非常好客,常用葡萄酒当饮料招待客人。在这种情况下,客人不应拒绝主人的盛情,而应与主人干杯,一饮而尽,以示对主人的友好和尊重。同桌进餐时,主人忌讳别人玩弄刀叉或磕碰餐具,端起盘子吃菜喝汤也是很不雅观的。在别人家里坐客,不经主人允许,不要擅自闯入主人的卧室或坐在床上,这是极不礼貌的行为。
摩尔多瓦人忌讳13这个数字,认为这是凶险和死亡的象征,相反却喜欢7这个数字,认为7能带来成功和幸福。

 

 

MILDOVA CULTURE

Moldovan people are very hospitable, often drink wine when entertaining guests. In this case, guests should not refuse the owner's hospitality, but should be with the owner Cheers, gulp, to show the owner's friendship and respect. When eating at the same table, the owner of taboo or bump someone playing cutlery cutlery, reach for a bite of soup plate is very unsightly. Others take off in the home, without the owners permission, do not intruded into the master bedroom or sitting on the bed, it is extremely impolite.
Moldovans taboo number 13, which is considered a symbol of danger and death, but instead like the number 7 that 7 can bring success and happiness.

Moldovan people sing and dance. Every major holiday, people have to take to the streets singing and dancing. "Dance is the soul of Moldovans", this statement is not an exaggeration. Moldova's national dance passionate, poetic, and slightly melancholy, fully embodies the character of this nation. Folk dance "Hora Dance", "If g Dance" reputation at home and abroad. Moldova's rich folk poetry, filled with a deep sense of national characteristics, the ballad "multi Ignatius" is the essence of folk poetry, widely sung.

Moldovan people's staple food is bread, eating a variety of vegetables, fried meat, lamb and dairy products. Traditional ethnic food is hot cornmeal porridge, served with goat cheese, fried onions, butter, and tomatoes. The typical food is soup, smoked fish, bacon, cheese sandwich peppers, grape leaf roll meat dish made ​​of volume, mix onion peas, garlic and so on. Moldovan women long to cook a variety of dishes and good wine brewing. They preserved a wide variety of dishes, delicious; wines sweet and sour, refreshing wine. When the holidays, housewife must prepare for the family of frozen chicken and frozen pork. It is particularly worth mentioning is the grape. Moldovan people's lives and grapes, wine inseparable, grapes are Moldova's oldest land plants, planting dates back to 3000 BC. In rural areas, families with wine cellar. People grapes as a symbol of prosperity, the owner at the time entertain guests, will offer Homebrew wine. When mutual wishes, favorite saying, "May we live like autumn vines as fruitful."

Festive, Moldova's men and women have to wear national costumes. For centuries, the Moldovan nation formed a unique national dress. Adult men in white gown and white pants, vest jacket made ​​it, winter wear Phikan shoulder or wool waistcoat, a short sheepskin coat, wearing a lamb fur hat, foot board homemade boots, waist beam of red, green or blue obi. Belt length is generally 3 meters. Men's belts not only has practical value, but also has a strong decorative. Women plunged large square, wearing a white shirt Embroidered clothing, jackets knees wide hem skirt, skirt the outer tie wool or linen apron. Moldovan women's skirt made ​​of dark wool general fabric. Skirt embroidered with multicolored geometric patterns. Skirt waist with a narrow belt. In winter, both men and women wearing homemade fur coat. Now, the national dress is still retained in the rural elderly, young people have very little wear, mostly used on film and stage, Moldova has become a symbol of the nation's art.

Baptism Day is an important holiday Moldovan Orthodox Church, in the Gregorian calendar on January 19. This day is often held naming day ceremony and newborn baptized into the church. Moderator recited the verses, the amount to be baptized on the person or the head of a little water, and sometimes people will be baptized body immersed in water, then bring to the baptized person cross necklace. When newborn baptized, parents can not be present for the baptized person selected guardian known as "The Godfather," "godmother." In Baptism Day, people go to church to be baptized to remove, but also to the rivers to take "holy water." Healthy people should jump Bingku wash.
Baptism day before (January 18), people used to divination. Especially girls often divination their marriage on this night.

Easter and carnival folk Moldova attaches great importance to the religious holiday. Easter each year from the end of April to the first Sunday in early May began, which lasted seven days. The first eight weeks before Easter is Carnival, which lasted seven days.
March 1 is the Moldovan people to greet the arrival of spring festival, called thirty-one. On this day, everyone in the chest to wear red, white silk cord woven flowers. White symbolizes spiritual beauty, purity, can bring love and peace, the red represents the resurrection of the sun and nature, to bring human health and strength.

Moldova in order to produce high quality wines known for growing grapes and making wine in the country after years of development has become an important economic industry. At present, the annual production of 230,000 tons Moldovan wine production in the first 20 in the world, of which 93% export Eurasia. In Moldova, only wine is considered a national treasure, "米列什蒂米 Qi" underground wine city is also in the Guinness Book of World Records.

The world-famous underground wine city construction within a large hill about 20 kilometers south of the capital Chisinau Department. To reach this place, must ride from the foot of the door to enter up to more than 200 km of tunnels. Both sides of the tunnel emissions tall barrel. These three meters high with oak barrels were produced, so the city a total of 1500 barrels. Wine town on the road is flat one-way street, you can travel a big truck. Wine of the city from the country's wine is famous wineries and farm purchased.

摩尔多瓦人非常好客,常用葡萄酒当饮料招待客人。在这种情况下,客人不应拒绝主人的盛情,而应与主人干杯,一饮而尽,以示对主人的友好和尊重。同桌进餐时,主人忌讳别人玩弄刀叉或磕碰餐具,端起盘子吃菜喝汤也是很不雅观的。在别人家里坐客,不经主人允许,不要擅自闯入主人的卧室或坐在床上,这是极不礼貌的行为。
摩尔多瓦人忌讳13这个数字,认为这是凶险和死亡的象征,相反却喜欢7这个数字,认为7能带来成功和幸福。

摩尔多瓦人能歌善舞。每逢重大节日,人们都要走上街头跳舞唱歌。 “舞蹈是摩尔多瓦人的灵魂”,这一说法一点不为过。摩尔多瓦的民族舞蹈热情奔放,富有诗意,又略显忧郁,充分体现了这个民族的性格。民族舞蹈“霍拉舞”、“若克舞”在国内外享有盛名。摩尔多瓦的民间诗歌丰富,充满了浓浓的民族特色,抒情歌曲“多依纳”是民间诗歌的精华,广泛传唱。

摩尔多瓦人的主食是面包,喜食各种素菜、炸肉、羊肉和奶制品。传统民族食品是热玉米面粥,佐以羊奶干酪、油炸洋葱、黄油、西红柿等。典型的食品是菜汤、熏鱼、腌肉、奶酪夹心青椒、用葡萄叶卷肉做成的菜卷、洋葱末拌豌豆、蒜泥等。摩尔多瓦妇女善长泡制各种小菜和酿制葡萄酒。他们腌制的小菜品种繁多,味道鲜美;酿制的葡萄酒酸甜可口,酒香沁人心脾。过节时,主妇一定要为家人准备冻鸡肉和冻猪肉。特别值得一提的是葡萄。摩尔多瓦人的生活和葡萄、葡萄酒密不可分,葡萄是摩尔多瓦这块土地上最古老的植物,种植历史可以追溯到公元前3000年。在乡村,家家备有葡萄酒窖。人们把葡萄看作富裕的象征,主人在款待宾客时,会献上家酿的葡萄酒。在相互祝愿时,最爱说“愿我们的生活象深秋的葡萄树一样硕果累累”。

每逢节日,摩尔多瓦的男女老少都要穿上民族服装。几个世纪以来,摩尔多瓦民族形成了独具特色的民族服饰。成年男子穿白长衫和白裤子,外套呢制的西装背心,入冬穿皮坎肩或毛坎肩,着短羊皮袄,头戴小羊皮帽,脚登自制皮靴,腰间束红色的、绿色的、或是兰色的宽腰带。腰带长度一般为3米。男用腰带不仅仅具有实用价值,而且具有极强的装饰性。妇女头扎大方巾,上身穿白底彩绣衫衣,外套过膝宽下摆裙,裙外扎毛料或亚麻布的围裙。摩尔多瓦妇女的裙子一般用深色的纯毛面料制成。裙子上面绣有五彩几何图案。裙腰部配有窄腰带。冬季,男女均穿上自制的皮毛外套。现在,民族服饰在农村的老年人中仍有保留,年青人已很少穿着,大多在电影和舞台上使用,已逐渐成为摩尔多瓦民族的艺术象征。

洗礼节是摩尔多瓦东正教的重要节日,在公历1月19日。这一天往往举行入教仪式和新生儿的命名日受洗。主持人口诵经文,给受洗人额上或头上点水,有时也将受洗人全身浸入水中,然后给受洗人带上十字架项链。新生儿接受洗礼时,父母不能在场,为受洗人选定的监护人称“教父”、“教母”。在洗礼节那天,人们除去到教堂接受洗礼外,还要到江河里取“圣水”。健康人要跳到冰窟窿里洗一洗。
洗礼节前一天(1月18日),人们习惯占卜。特别是女孩子往往在这一天晚上占卜自己的终身大事​​。

复活节和狂欢节是摩尔多瓦民间十分重视的宗教节日。复活节每年从4月底至5月初的第一个星期日开始,历时7天。复活节前的第8周是狂欢节,历时7天。
3月1日是摩尔多瓦人迎接春天来临的节日,称三一节。这一天,人人都在胸前戴上红、白绸线编织的小花。白色象征心灵美好、纯洁,能给人带来爱与和平,红色代表太阳和大自然的复活,带给人类健康和力量。

摩尔多瓦以出产高品质葡萄酒着称,种植葡萄和酿造葡萄酒经过多年发展已成为该国重要的经济产业。目前,摩尔多瓦每年生产23万吨葡萄酒,产量居世界第20位,其中93%外销欧亚。在摩尔多瓦,不仅葡萄酒被视为国宝,“米列什蒂米齐”地下酒城也被载入吉尼斯世界纪录。

闻名世界的“米列什蒂米齐”地下酒城建在该国首都基希讷乌以南约20公里处的一座大山丘内。要到达此地,须乘车从山脚下的大门进入长达200多公里的隧道。隧道两侧排放着高大的酒桶。这些高3米的酒桶均用橡木制作,城内共有这样的酒桶1500个。酒城里的道路是平坦的单行道,可以行驶一辆大卡车。酒城中的葡萄酒是从该国一些著名葡萄酒酿造厂和农家购进的。

MILDOVA ARCHITECTURE

Moldova to "my city, my fortress" as the theme of Shanghai World Expo exhibition, exhibition of Moldova through history and tradition, prosperous city, the future in-depth interpretation of the innovation and the four aspects of the city's wine culture, so that the audience can feel immersive Moldova rich folk customs, profound cultural change in precipitation as well as the development of the contemporary city.

摩尔多瓦以“我的城市,我的堡垒”为主题参展上海世博会,将通过展览对摩尔多瓦历史传统、繁荣都市、未来城市的创新以及酒文化四个方面进行深入演绎,使观众能身临其境地感受摩尔多瓦浓郁的民俗风情、深厚的文化沉淀以及当代城市的变革发展。

MILDOVA FOOD

Moldovan people's staple food is bread, eating a variety of vegetables, fried meat, lamb and dairy products. Traditional ethnic food is hot cornmeal porridge, served with goat cheese, fried onions, butter, and tomatoes. The typical food is soup, smoked fish, bacon, cheese sandwich peppers, grape leaf roll meat dish made ​​of volume, mix onion peas, garlic and so on.

Moldovan women long to cook a variety of dishes and good wine brewing. They preserved a wide variety of dishes, delicious; wines sweet and sour, refreshing wine. When the holidays housewife must prepare for the family of frozen chicken and frozen pork.

It is particularly worth mentioning is the grape. Moldovan people's lives and grapes, wine inseparable, grapes are Moldova's oldest land plants, planting dates back to 3000 BC. In rural areas, families with wine cellar.

摩尔多瓦人的主食是面包,喜食各种素菜、炸肉、羊肉和奶制品。传统民族食品是热玉米面粥,佐以羊奶干酪、油炸洋葱、黄油、西红柿等。典型的食品是菜汤、熏鱼、腌肉、奶酪夹心青椒、用葡萄叶卷肉做成的菜卷、洋葱末拌豌豆、蒜泥等。

摩尔多瓦妇女善长泡制各种小菜和酿制葡萄酒。他们腌制的小菜品种繁多,味道鲜美;酿制的葡萄酒酸甜可口,酒香沁人心脾。过节时主妇一定要为家人准备冻鸡肉和冻猪肉。

特别值得一提的是葡萄。摩尔多瓦人的生活和葡萄、葡萄酒密不可分,葡萄是摩尔多瓦这块土地上最古老的植物,种植历史可以追溯到公元前3000年。在乡村,家家备有葡萄酒窖。

MILDOVA HOLIDAY