Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

In the former Yugoslavia and Central, between two of the Republic of Croatia and Serbia. In 1945, the Yugoslav peoples achieved victory over fascism, the establishment of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a republic Yugoslav federation. Sarajevo, the capital. Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Yugoslav federation is one of the poorer regions, independent after the civil war, the economy severely compromised. Currently BiH economy is gradually recovering, but also be from a planned economy to a market economy. The country on the administration and management is divided into three entities, one for the Federation of BiH, Republika Srpska and the other is, again Brcko District.

Bosnia and Herzegovina on the history itself is only the name of the two geographical areas, political entities in the country today is still not directly use these two names represent geographic areas exist only with the use of ethnic Bosnian Croats name (wave political entities exist only black federal), and Serbs (Republika Srpska) represents.

Capital - Sarajevo (Sarajevo), area of ??142 square kilometers, population 424,000 (2011).

In the external sector, 1990 was $ 2.876 billion exports, imports amounted to $ 2.548 billion. Major trading partners are Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Germany, Austria and so on.

Until recently, the idea of a Bosnian nationality mainly applied to the nation's Muslims, also referred to as Bosniaks. Bosnia's Croatians and Serbs looked to Serbia and Croatia for guidance and as the mother country and both had aspirations for political union with either Serbia or Croatia once the Yugoslav state began to fall apart in the early 1990s. This of course spelled disaster for the state of Bosnia and as a result a bloody civil war was fought between all three groups. In the end the Croatian-Muslim alliance fought the Serbian forces on the ground whilst NATO attacked the Bosnian Serbs from the air.

A peace treaty followed with a heavy handled role of the U.S. Clinton Administration helping seal the deal. The result was that Bosnia would be a federation comprising a Croat-Muslim unit alongside a Serb autonomous entity. Things have rapidly improved since then but the two regions of Bosnia still have a long way to go towards complete political and social union. As of now, it could be said Bosnia functions as one country with two or even three different parts. However, the central government lies in Sarajevo and there is one common currency, the Mark .

 

于原南斯拉夫中部,介于克罗地亚和塞尔维亚两共和国之间。1945年,南斯拉夫各族人民取得反法西斯战争胜利,成立南斯拉夫联邦人民共和国,波黑成为南斯拉夫联邦的一个共和国。首都萨拉热窝。波斯尼亚与黑塞哥维那在南斯拉夫时期便是联邦内较贫穷的地区之一,独立后又发生了内战,经济受到严重损害。目前波黑经济正在渐渐复苏,同时还要进行从计划经济到市场经济的转型。该国在行政及管理上被分成三个实体,其一为波黑联邦,另一为塞族共和国,再次为布尔奇科特区。

波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那本身仅为历史学上两个地理区域名称,时至今日在该国仍然没有直接使用这两个地理区域名称所代表的政治实体存在,仅有使用种族名称波斯尼亚人跟克罗地亚人(波黑联邦)、及塞尔维亚人(塞族共和国)所代表的政治实体存在而已。

首都-萨拉热窝(Sarajevo),面积142平方公里,人口42.4万人(2011年)。

在对外贸易方面,1990年出口额为28.76亿美元,进口额为25.48亿美元。主要贸易伙伴是克罗地亚、意大利、斯洛文尼亚、德国、奥地利等。

直到最近,一个波斯尼亚国籍的想法主要适用于国家的穆斯林,也被称为波斯尼亚。波斯尼亚的克罗地亚人和塞尔维亚人看着塞尔维亚和克罗地亚的指导和母国,都不得不与任何塞尔维亚和克罗地亚的政治联盟的愿望,一旦南斯拉夫国家开始分崩离析在90年代初。这当然拼写灾难波斯尼亚的状态,因此一场血腥的内战是所有三组??之间的战斗。到底克罗地亚穆斯林联盟打了塞尔维亚军队在地面上,而北约袭击从空中波斯尼亚塞族。

和平条约随后与美国克林顿政府的一个沉重的处理作用,帮助帮你搞定。其结果是,波斯尼亚将包括克罗地亚人,穆斯林单元旁边一个塞族自治实体的联盟。事情此后迅速改善,但波斯尼亚的两个地区仍然有很长的路要走完整的政治和社会联盟。截至目前,可以说波斯尼亚功能为一体的国家有两个甚至三个不同的部分。然而,中央政府就在于在萨拉热窝和有一个共同的货币,马克。

 

 

BOSNIA CULTURE

Croatian folk dance onto the stage to sing out of a wind-swept pastures of Central Europe firmament of heaven and earth. Dance Changbu Wan Chung Lele, a simple pleasure, like going into open countryside endless parties, boys and girls, neighborhood, recreation, festivities, and all are returning to the labor and seasonal praise.

Even field folk dance, search Luo Keguo coastal, inland, mountains, plateaus, islands and other districts essence of traditional dance music, a melting furnace, nearly 50 people dance choir and orchestra wearing colorful ethnic costumes, jump around Jing Jing yardstick dance, singing a leisurely world, earth touching, adding bagpipes, drums and a rare gram country folk Xiaoqin, bell boots and piccolo, like a kaleidoscope of ever-changing art, so the audience deeply appreciate the wide range of local traditions culture, beautiful!

Croatian National Folk Dance Troupe was founded sixty years, known in Europe, the Balkans, Slavic, Mediterranean hundred and one thousand two sets of branches dance in traditional clothing eclectic, known as the "dancing museum", which is part of the project but the United Nations Educational cultural Organization as intangible cultural heritage.

克罗地亚民族歌舞搬上舞台,唱跳出一片风吹草低的中欧穹苍天地。舞唱不完的众乐乐,简单愉悦,如一场接一场开不完的乡间派对,少男少女的、邻里的、游憩的、欢宴的,统统是久违了的劳动与季节礼赞。

连场民族歌舞,搜罗克国沿海、内陆、山岭、高原、岛屿等各区传统舞乐精华,一炉共冶,近五十人的舞唱团与乐队穿戴色彩斑斓的民族服饰,围跳精劲准绳的舞步,吟唱出天地悠然、人间情味,加入风笛、大鼓和难得一见的克国民间小琴、靴铃和短笛,宛如变化万千的艺术万花筒,让观众深入体会当地林林总总的传统文化,美不胜收!

克罗地亚国家民族舞蹈团成立六十多年,享誉欧洲,将巴尔干、斯拉夫、地中海一带逾百支舞蹈及千二套传统服装兼收并蓄,被誉为「会跳舞的博物馆」,当中部分项目更被联合国教科文组织列为非物质文化遗产。

BOSNIA ARCHITECTURE

Diocletian's Palace (English: Diocletian's Palace) Roman Empire Palace, about AD 295 - AD 305 years to build, covers an area of ​​nearly 400 hectares. Diocletian abdicated after living here. Located in the city of Split in Croatia, for a grand forts and magnificent waterfront luxury giant country house. Flat rectangular, palace north to south and 215 meters, a wall thickness of 2.1 m. Pro before Adriatic Sea, south of 22 meters high, 18 meters high in the north. Total 16 towers and four palace. Its center has two 11-meter-wide arcade Avenue. The front of the palace chambers, 160 meters long coastal arcade, 7.3 meters wide, can lookout sea and the Dalmatian coast. When Chodo, Avars invaded the palace in the rear as being severely damaged, 639 years after the Avars retreat, the palace ruins are replaced him with 萨洛纳 City refugees. In 1979, the site was listed as a World Heritage Site.

戴克里先宫(英语: Diocletian's Palace)罗马帝国宫殿,约公元295年—公元305年建,占地近4公顷。戴克里先退位后即居于此。位于克罗埃西亚斯普利特市,为一座宏大壮丽的海滨堡垒和豪华巨型乡间别墅。平面呈长方形,宫殿南北长215米,宫墙厚2.1米。前临亚得里亚海,南高22米,北高18米。计16座塔楼和4座宫门。其中心有两条11米宽的拱廊大道。宫殿前部为寝宫,沿海拱廊长160米,宽7.3米,可瞭望海景和达尔马提亚海岸。后部为朝堂,宫殿于阿瓦尔人入侵时被严重破坏,639年阿瓦尔人撤退后,宫殿遗址被萨洛纳城难民改为他用。 1979年,该遗址被列为世界文化遗产。

BOSNIA ARTS & CRAVE

Only one of Croatia and Italy across the sea, since the beginning of the era of the Roman Empire, to the medieval Venetian prosperity, are deeply cultural influence of the Italian peninsula. Currently, Croatia still retains amphitheater in Pula, Porecbasilica, Split's Daikelian Roman Emperor palace complex and other Roman ruins.These ancient buildings and has a "pearl of the Adriatic" said Dubrovnik and Trogir twoancient city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

 

克罗地亚与意大利仅一海之隔,自罗马帝国时代开始,至中世纪威尼斯盛世,都深受意大利半岛的文化影响。目前,克罗地亚仍保留着普拉的圆形竞技场、波雷奇的长方形教堂、斯普利特的戴克里安罗马皇帝宫殿建筑群等古罗马遗迹。这些古建筑与拥有“亚得里亚海珍珠”之称的杜布罗夫尼克和特罗吉尔两座古城被联合国教科文组织宣布为世界文化遗产。

BOSNIA FOOD

Croatian cuisine combines Italy, Hungary, Austria and the Far East cuisine, both well preserved its original character but also into the local culinary tradition.

Croatia has more than fifty kinds of different local dishes and local cheese and desserts. Worthy to recommend to you the best bonfire barbecue, Dalmatian smoked ham (prosutto), goat cheese and kulen (pepper flavored sausage). In mainland China, more popular dish is turkey with mlinci (grilled chicken juice soaked fire dough) and cheese (cheese and salty cake). Coastal cuisine is more popular Dalmatian style fish stew, seafood soup and seafood salad.

Diet Croatian cuisine combines Italy, Hungary, Austria and the Far East cuisine, there are more than 50 kinds of local dishes and local cheeses and desserts. Campfire barbecue, Dalmatian smoked ham, goat cheese, etc. The most well-known.
Seafood soup and a variety of fresh salvaged from the sea fish, shrimp, crab as people dizzying. And numerous red wine, white wine, cherry wine is adorned Croats share.

克罗地亚的菜肴综合了意大利,匈牙利,奥地利和远东的菜肴,既完好地保留了其原有的特色又融入了本地的烹饪传统。

克罗地亚有五十多种不同的本地菜及本地的奶酪和甜点。值得向您推荐的极品有篝火烤肉、达尔马提亚熏火腿(prosutto),羊奶酪,和kulen(胡椒味的腊肠)。在大陆,比较受欢迎的菜是火鸡配mlinci(浸过火鸡汁的烤面团)和奶酪(奶酪咸糕)。沿海地区比较受欢迎的菜是达尔马西亚式炖鱼,海鲜汤和海鲜沙拉。

饮食克罗地亚的菜肴综合了意大利、匈牙利、奥地利和远东的菜肴,有50多种本地菜和本地的奶酪和甜点。篝火烤肉、达尔马提亚熏火腿、羊奶酪等最为驰名。
海鲜汤以及各种各样从大海中新鲜打捞出的鱼、虾、蟹叫人目不暇接。而名目繁多的红葡萄酒、白葡萄酒、樱桃酒更是克罗地亚人佐餐的佳品。

BOSNIA HOLIDAY

January 1 New Year's Day (Nova godina)
New Year's Day, also known as the "new years" refers to the current calendar of January 1. But before 1911, "New Year" that is today's "Spring Festival", which is the lunar New Year. New Year's Day is a holiday in many countries of the world or regions, such as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Japan, Korea and so on. Among them China, Singapore and vacation day as a statutory holiday in Japan on vacation for six days, from years ago, on December 29 until the first of which China, Singapore and the day as a statutory holiday leave, leave Japan for six days, from years ago, December 29 day until the second year on January 3. Custom, the "New Year" major blessing to each other in various ways, greeting cards is one of the main forms.

January 6 Epiphany (Bogojavljenje, Tri Kralja)
Epiphany (Greek: επιφάνεια, English: Italian display of the Epiphany, there appear or; Orthodox festival known as baptism) is an important festival of Catholic and Christian, to commemorate and celebrate the birth of Jesus after man first revealed to the Gentiles (referring to the three kings of Orient); Epiphany is January 6 each year, but different religions have different feast day celebration. Epiphany meaning in the Christian point of view mainly include the birth of Jesus Christ man, Dr. Orient (Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar) to Bethlehem to worship El Nino (Jesus), as well as being his pro cousin Saint John the Baptist Jesus childhood All events are being received in 30 AD Baptism in the Jordan River before happened (ie, the truth of the kingdom of Jesus publicity three years before the time). This ancient form of Epiphany festival is Hanukkah Jews, was already set at the January 6 a.

April 8 Easter (Uskrs)
Easter (the resurrection day) is an important festival west, the full moon after the vernal equinox each year on the first Sunday. Christians believe that Easter symbolizes rebirth and hope, to commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus Christ on the third day after the Day of Resurrection cross between AD 30-33 years. If the region has the Easter holidays, it is usually with the Good Friday holiday. Today, many folk customs associated with Easter such as Easter Bunny and Easter eggs are not the origin of Christianity. Jesus commanded his disciples to remember his death (Luke 22: 19, 20).

May 1 International Labor Day (Međunarodni praznik rada)
International Labor Day, also known as "May Day", "International Day demonstrations," is Labor Day in most countries of the world.

June 7 Corpus Christi (Tijelovo)

June 22 Anti-Fascist Day (Dan antifašističke borbe)

June 25 National Day (Dan državnosti)

August 5 local Thanksgiving Day (Dan pobjede i Dan domovinske zahvalnosti)

August 15 Assumption Day (Velika Gospa)

October 8 Independence Day (Dan nezavisnosti)

November 1 All Saints' Day (Dan svih svetih)
All Saints Day is both Catholic and Orthodox festival. In the Catholic Church, the All Saints' Day on November 1 each year. In the Orthodox Church, and Halloween is Pentecost (Pentecost) after the first Sunday, which marks the end of the Easter quarter. All Saints is a Catholic call for all the faithful saints and martyrs, including the well-known and unknown. This festival is the first day of the month of Catholic souls in purgatory, in the name of the saint celebrated festival, which is used as a day to celebrate all been included in the saint's feast of the saint. The Roman Catholic festival (Festum omnium sanctorum) is scheduled for November 1, followed by spirits Day November 2 is the first level of the celebration, including a vigil ceremony and a celebration of 28.

December 25 Christmas Day (Božić)
Christmas in Taiwan, also known as Christmas, is a traditional festival of the church calendar, it is a celebration day Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus. On Christmas Day, most of the Catholic church will be on Christmas Eve on December 24, that is December 25 Midnight Mass held in the morning, and some Christian churches will hold caroling, and then in December 25 to celebrate Christmas ; while the other major branch of Christianity - Orthodox Christmas celebrations in the annual January 7. According to Catholic Gospels, Jesus is the Bethlehem of the Virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit pregnant after giving birth, Mary and her husband Joseph was on his way to Rome census registration. Jesus was born in a Jewish believer seems to be the Messiah prophesied in the plan to come to realize, because Bethlehem is David first family home. Christmas is also the Western world as well as many other areas of public holidays, for example: in Asia, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia and Singapore. However, the exact date of Jesus' birth is disputed.

December 26 St. Stephen's Day (Sveti Stjepan)

2014

1月1日 元旦 (Nova godina)
  元旦,也被称为“新历年”,是指现行公历的1月1日。但在1911年之前,“元旦”即是今天的“春节”,也就是夏历新年。元旦是世界上很多国家或地区的法定假日,如中国大陆、台湾、香港、澳门、新加坡、日本、韩国等。其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第二年的1月3日。习俗方面,“元旦”主要以各种方式互相祝福,贺年卡是其中主要形式。
   
1月6日 主显节 (Bogojavljenje, Tri Kralja)
  主显节(希腊文:επιφάνεια,英文:Epiphany,有出现或显示之意;东正教俗称为洗礼节)是一个天主教及基督教的重要节庆日,以纪念及庆祝耶稣在降生为人后首次显露给外邦人(指东方三贤士);主显节是为每年的1月6日,但因不同的宗教而有不同的庆日庆祝。主显节在基督教角度上的含义主要包括了耶稣基督降生为人、东方博士(Caspar、Melchior和 Balthasar)到伯利恒朝拜圣婴(耶稣),以及耶稣童年时在被他的亲表哥圣若翰洗者在公元30年于约旦河被领受圣洗前所发生过的所有事件(即耶稣宣传天国的道理的三年间之前的时候)。主显节这个节庆的古老形式是犹太人的光明节,当时就已经定在了1月6日了。
   
4月8日 复活节 (Uskrs)
  复活节(主复活日)是一个西方的重要节日,在每年春分月圆之后第一个星期日。基督徒认为,复活节象征着重生与希望,为纪念耶稣基督于公元30到33年之间被钉死在十字架之后第三天复活的日子。如该地区有复活节假期的话,通常与耶稣受难日一起放假。今天,许多与复活节相关的民间风俗例如复活节兔和复活节彩蛋都不是起源于基督教的。耶稣只吩咐门徒要记念自己的死亡(路加福音22:19,20)。
   
5月1日 国际劳动节 (Međunarodni praznik rada)
  国际劳动节又称“五一国际劳动节”、“国际示威游行日”,是世界上大多数国家的劳动节。
   
6月7日 圣体节 (Tijelovo)
   
6月22日 反法西斯日 (Dan antifašističke borbe)
   
6月25日 国庆日 (Dan državnosti)
   
8月5日 本土感恩节 (Dan pobjede i Dan domovinske zahvalnosti)
   
8月15日 圣母升天节 (Velika Gospa)
   
10月8日 独立日 (Dan nezavisnosti)
   
11月1日 诸圣节 (Dan svih svetih)
  诸圣节是天主教和东正教都有的节日。在天主教中,诸圣节在每年的11月1日。在东正教中,万圣节是圣灵降临节(Pentecost)之后的第一个星期日,因而标志着复活节季度的结束。诸圣是一个天主教称呼,用于所有忠诚的圣者和殉道者,包括知名的和不知名的。这个节日是天主教的炼灵月的首日,是以圣者的名义庆祝的节日,而这日是用作庆祝所有被列入圣品的圣人的瞻礼。罗马天主教将节日(Festum omnium sanctorum)定于11月1日,紧接着是11月2日的诸灵节,是第一等级的庆典,包含一个守夜礼和一个八日庆期。
   
12月25日 圣诞节 (Božić)
  圣诞节,在台湾也称作圣诞节,是教会年历的一个传统节日,它是基督徒庆祝耶稣基督诞生的庆祝日。在圣诞节,大部分的天主教教堂都会先在12月24日的平安夜,亦即12月25日凌晨举行子夜弥撒,而一些基督教会则会举行报佳音,然后在12月25日庆祝圣诞节;而基督教的另一大分支——东正教的圣诞节庆祝则在每年的1月7日。根据天主教的福音书,耶稣是伯利恒的圣母玛利亚受圣灵感孕后生下的,玛利亚和丈夫约瑟当时正在去罗马人口普查注册的路上。耶稣的出生在信徒看来是犹太教预言中的默西亚将要到来计划的实现,因为伯利恒是约瑟祖先戴维一族的家。圣诞节也是西方世界以及其它很多地区的公共假日,例如:在亚洲的香港、澳门、马来西亚和新加坡。但耶稣确切的出生日期是存在争议的。
   
12月26日 圣史蒂芬日 (Sveti Stjepan)