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Russia (Russian) regions across eastern Europe and northern Asia, the coastline extending from the Arctic Ocean to the North Pacific Ocean, west of the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the 14 countries, is the largest country in the world, Moscow is known as "the capital of the forest." . Russia's cultural history and landscape architecture are quite rich, prestigious museums, traditional architecture; mystical Orthodox Church, just like the story appeared and various hidden from fairy tales; the Black Sea, as a treasure hidden in gourmet caviar currently mainly dependent on gas, oil and other natural resource exports, the rapid accumulation of foreign exchange reserves of wealth to become the top three countries in the world,

Hermitage Museum (also known as the Hermitage Museum or the Museum of implicit Shi Lu) Neva river in St. Petersburg, the museum is mainly Hermitage, Hermitage and theater three parts consisting of six buildings, namely a 000 exhibition halls. At present the museum collection includes paintings, line drawings, sculpture, decorative arts, archaeological artifacts, coins, medals, etc. more than 3 0 00000 Stone Age to the world's cultural treasures of contemporary art, the Louvre in Paris, London, the British Museum or the Metropolitan adding to the great museum Museum.

"Like Peter the Great Bronze Horseman" stands on the south bank of the Neva River in St. Petersburg City "December Party Plaza", the French artist Faerkena sculpture, knight's head there molded his female students of Colorado.

俄罗斯(俄罗斯)地域跨越欧洲东部和亚洲北部,海岸线从北冰洋延伸至北太平洋,西接大西洋,与1 4个国家相邻,是世界上面积最大的国家,莫斯科被誉为「森林中的首都」。俄国的人文历史与建筑景观都相当丰富,博物馆也颇负盛名,传统的建筑;神秘的东正教教堂,仿如从童话故事出现并各个深藏故事;黑海,藏着美食家视为珍宝的鱼子酱目前主要依赖天然气,石油等天然资源出口,快速累积财富成为全球外汇存底前三名的国家,

冬宫博物馆(又称埃尔米塔日博物馆或隐士卢博物馆)位于圣彼得堡的涅瓦河边,博物馆主要为冬宫,埃尔米塔日及剧院三部分六大建筑物所组成,计有1 0 0 0个展览厅。目前博物馆收藏包括绘画,线条画,雕塑,装饰用艺术,考古文物,硬币,纪念章等超过3 0 0万件石器时代至当代艺术的世界文化珍宝,是巴黎罗浮宫,伦敦大英博物馆或美国大都会博物馆才能并称的伟大博物馆。

「彼得大帝青铜骑士像」矗立于圣彼得堡市涅瓦河南岸的「十二月党广场」中,法国艺术家法尔柯纳雕刻,骑士的头则有他的女学生科罗塑成。

红场位于莫斯科市中心,长6 9 5公尺,宽约1 3 0公尺,占地约9万平方公尺,与北京天安门广场,巴西圣保罗广场并列世界三大广场。古俄语中「红」即为美丽宜人之意,因为广场周边美丽的建筑而使这个广场得名,故「红场」之名与红砖建筑,共产主义或血腥都无关联。整个广场与建筑显得非常庄严而雄伟。

复活教堂参考圣瓦西里教堂,采用彼得一世以前时代的教会风格建筑,五个洋葱头装饰得五光十色缤纷夺目,中间的建筑物有镀金圆顶的钟塔和门廊,更特别的是整座教堂以各式磁砖和陶砖镶嵌于外墙,以马赛克镶嵌成圣画像及基督传福音像,精湛的工艺技术展现的淋漓尽致。...

Russia - to those who choose it, bread, milk, potatoes, cheese and sausage - "five leaders", cabbage, onion, carrots and beets - "Four Diamond", and black bread, vodka, caviar - " The Three Musketeers. "

Green cauliflower from France to China dishes, from Turkey to Spain, zucchini, bell pepper, what vegetables can buy, but the price is the lowest, the taste is still the most positive when the real estate cabbage, onion, carrots and beets. With this "Four Diamond" plus beef soup made of red, mellow, delicious and very, drank the whole body Choutet.

To some extent, the diet is a reflection of national identity. Russian national wild, uninhibited, solid, plain, simple Cuhao their traditional diet. Russians ask for much earlier in the diet - large, heavy oil, warming up on the line, black bread and cabbage soup meet these three criteria. Hard labor brawny meal to eat twenty-three pounds of bread, but bread dry and hard of crude oil to be on a lot of honking cabbage soup to swallow.

Russian black bread crust stiff, salty sour taste, the color of the surface Wotou sorghum. People do not understand that this is a case of poor food, which was once seen as the Soviet people "eat two times bitter, by the second crop of crimes" strong evidence.

In fact, both top full black bread and nutritious, but also easy to digest, very good for the stomach, especially suitable with fish and other meat dishes. This is because the yeast fermentation of black bread contains vitamins and bio?. Hundreds of years ago, the Russian people realized the truth of their experience. From the 13th century Grand Duke Alexander Nevsky to now, the main food of Russian soldiers have been black bread.

Vodka is another portrayal of the Russian national character. Vodka direct meaning is "pretty water", Russian soft spot. Children and women are also included in the statistics, where the per capita consumption of 100 grams per day.

Europeans regard as the finest gourmet caviar, which went from Russia for the top grade. Caviar gray (Pollack), red (salmon) and black (sturgeon) three. Grey tastes heavy, too fishy red, black and the most wonderful. Even in the 1950s, black caviar production 10 times higher than it is now, when the Russian people, eat a discredit caviar oil and butter bread is a rare treat.

Russian cuisine is rich and varied particularly reflected in the dish, pickled vegetables like pickles, salad, sausage, cheese, frozen fish ...... tend to feast on a nearly ten varieties of cold dishes. Dinner is usually not the soup, dish after dish is positive, usually grilled fish and ducks.

Although the Russian people, like people in Europe and America, with butter, meat and other high-fat, high-calorie eating meat or fish as the main content, but they also drink a lot of milk and its products, and have to drink tea every day, which reduce cholesterol, lose weight prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular sclerosis is very favorable. Although our country to hormone-based, then the brain blood vessels, a very high proportion of high cholesterol. May eat dairy products, tea is not generally relevant. Russian diet, food is quite rich, and making simple meals with the time is not long, the increasingly fast pace of life today, but also for our reference.

Pies, have a negligible role in the Russian meal. During major holidays, New Year, baptism, birthday, name day, weddings and funerals, as an important pie dishes, are essential. Russian pie has a "sun", "great festival", "harvest", "child health" and "happy marriage" and many other meanings, Russia ancient proverb says: Russian human life are accompanied pie.

俄罗斯- 择其要者,有面包、牛奶、土豆、奶酪和香肠——“五大领袖”,圆白菜、葱头、胡萝卜和甜菜——“四大金刚”,以及黑面包、伏特加、鱼子酱——“三剑客”。

从法国的绿菜花到中国菜,从土耳其的西葫芦到西班牙的柿子椒,什么蔬菜都能买到,但是价格最低、味道最正的依然是当地产的圆白菜、葱头、胡萝卜和甜菜。用这“四大金刚”加牛肉做红菜汤,滋味醇厚,鲜香无比,喝了通体舒泰。

从某种程度上说,饮食是民族特性的反映。俄罗斯民族粗犷豪放,朴素实诚,其传统饮食简单粗豪。俄罗斯人早先在饮食上要求不高——量大、油重、热乎就行,黑面包加白菜汤符合这三项标准。干体力活的壮汉一顿要吃掉两三磅面包,而干硬粗粝的面包要就着大量油乎乎的白菜汤才能下咽。

俄罗斯的黑面包外皮粗硬、口味酸咸、色如高梁面窝头。不了解情况的人以为这是粗劣食品,一度曾把它看做苏联人民“吃二遍苦,受二茬罪”的有力证据。

其实,黑面包既顶饱又有营养,还易于消化,对肠胃极有益,尤其适于配鱼肉等荤菜。这是因为,黑面包发酵用的酒母含有多种维生素和生物?。数百年前的俄罗斯人是凭经验悟得这一道理的。从13世纪的亚历山大·涅夫斯基大公到现在,俄军士兵的主要食粮一直是黑面包。

伏特加酒是俄罗斯民族性格的又一写照。伏特加的直接词义是“可爱的水”,俄罗斯人对它情有独钟。儿童妇女也统计在内,这里人均每天消费100克。

欧洲人视鱼子酱为上等美食,其中又以俄罗斯产的为上品。鱼子酱有灰(明太鱼)、红(鲑鱼)和黑(鲟鱼)三种。灰的口味重,红的太腥,黑的最妙。即使在50年代,黑鱼子酱产量比现在高10倍的时候,对俄罗斯人来说,吃一片抹黑鱼子酱油和黄油的面包也是难得的享受。

俄菜的丰富多样特别体现在凉菜上,酸黄瓜之类的腌渍菜、色拉、香肠、奶酪、鱼冻……一次家宴往往要上近十个品种的凉菜。晚餐通常不上汤,凉菜后就是正菜,一般是烧烤的鸡鸭鱼肉。

尽管俄罗斯人与欧美居民一样,以奶油,肉类等高脂、高热量荤食为主体的饮食内容,但是,他们同时饮用大量牛奶及其制品,并且每天均要喝茶,这对降低血脂、减肥、防止心脑血管硬化是十分有利的。我们国家尽管以素为主,便脑血管、高血脂者比例甚高。可能与少吃奶类制品,喝茶也不普遍有关。俄式饮食,菜肴还是比较丰富,而且制作简便,用在吃饭上的时间不长,在生活节奏越来越快的今日,也可供我们借鉴。

馅饼,在俄餐中有着不可忽视的地位。每逢重要节日、新年、洗礼、生日、命名日、婚礼以及葬礼,馅饼作为一道重要的菜肴,都是必不可少的。俄式馅饼有着“太阳”、“伟大节日”、“丰收”、“孩子健康”和“婚姻幸福”等多种含义,俄国古谚语中说道:俄国人的一生都伴随着馅饼。

RUSSIA ARCHITECTURE

The famous Basilica of St. Basu, located in Moscow, built in AD 1555 to 1561. Unique onion dome was built later in 1680, it shows the characteristics of the Russian-style dome. Russian Church is characterized by multi-dome, which is the difference between Russia and other Orthodox countries or Catholic country place.

Russia's first post-Christianization of Kievan Rus is the construction of multi-domed Orthodox churches. The church has 13 domes, there are 25 domes. The number of the dome has religious significance, such as 13 dome represents Christ and the Twelve Apostles, while 25 domes also includes twelve Old Testament prophets.

Moscow's onion dome of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption of the early Russian stone retains Byzantine style church, but later in the 15th century, onion domes became a common form of traditional Russian architecture. Onion dome refers to the shape of the dome is not strictly hemispherical, but like an onion. Such as Tented roof, like onion domes just started using wooden dome, to the much later became rocky dome style.

Orthodox, the dome means the supreme sky, it is a symbol of the ladder to help believers closer to God. Russians will be thought of as a group dome burning flame, so the Russian-style domes are often plated with gold or other bright colors. Before the mid-19th century, gold plating has been using mercury, prone dangerous. Especially in the largest igloo ── Cathedral in St. Petersburg Shengyisake also used. The mid-19th century, relatively safe gilt plating method available, for the first time on the dome of the Cathedral of the Savior in Moscow. The latter is the world's tallest Orthodox church.

著名的圣巴素大教堂,位于莫斯科,建于西元1555至1561年。别具一格的葱头圆顶是稍后的1680年建造的,充分显示了俄罗斯式圆顶的特色。俄罗斯教堂的特点是采用多圆顶,这是俄罗斯与其他东正教国家或天主教国家的不同之处。

俄罗斯最早的基辅罗斯的基督教化后建造的东正教教堂就是多圆顶的。这些教堂中有13个圆顶的,也有25圆顶的。圆顶的数目有宗教意义,比如说13个圆顶代表了基督和十二使徒,而25圆顶还包括了旧约圣经中的十二先知。

莫斯科的圣母升天大教堂的葱头圆顶早期的俄罗斯石质教堂还保留着拜占庭式的风格,但15世纪以后,葱头圆顶成为了传统俄罗斯建筑的常见形式。葱头圆顶是指圆顶的形状不是严格的半球形,而是像一个洋葱头。如攒尖顶一样,葱头圆顶一开始只是在木质圆顶中使用,到了很久以后才开始成为石质圆顶的样式。

东正教中,圆顶意味着至高无上的苍穹,它是象征着帮助教徒接近上帝的阶梯。俄罗斯人将圆顶想像为一团燃烧的火焰,因此俄罗斯式的圆顶常常镀上金色或其他明快的颜色。 19世纪中期以前,镀金工艺一直使用水银,易生危险。特别是在最大的圆顶建筑──圣彼得堡的圣伊萨克大教堂中也有使用。 19世纪中期,比较安全的电镀镀金法面世,首次使用在莫斯科的救世主大教堂的圆顶上。后者是世界上最高的东正教教堂。

RUSSIA FOOD

Russian bread staple food, meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables for non-staple food, but eating beef, mutton, not eat pork. Like stew, boiled, braised dishes, fried, grilled are also available. Like sour, sweet, salty and spicy foods.
Russians eat breakfast is relatively simple, and sometimes a few slices of black bread, a cup of yogurt even breakfast. But they are quite exquisite lunch and dinner, eat meatloaf, steak, chicken meat, high-fat foods, eat fried potatoes. Appreciate Chinese food, especially love to eat Beijing duck. Russians generally do not eat squid, sea cucumbers, jellyfish, fungus and other items.

Russian lunch, dinner can not do without soup, and the soup Khan generally concentrated. In addition, lunch, dinner and ultimately cold. Snack dish, the Russian people love to eat raw tomatoes, raw onions, pickles, sour cabbage. Throughout the course of the meal, eat a dish longer time, about one-third.

Russians drink beer for fin, love to drink hard liquor, especially vodka drinker generally large. For Chinese liquor is also interested, do not drink wine.

俄罗斯人以面包为主食,肉、鱼、禽、蛋和蔬菜为副食,但喜食牛、羊肉,不大爱吃猪肉。喜欢焖、煮、烩的菜,炸、烤也可。喜欢酸、甜、咸和微辣食品。
俄罗斯人吃早餐比较简单,有时几片黑面包,一杯酸牛奶就算一顿早餐。但他们对午餐和晚餐都颇为讲究,爱吃肉饼、牛排、烤鸡等高脂肪的肉类食品,爱吃油炸马铃薯。对中国菜十分欣赏,尤其爱吃北京烤鸭。俄罗斯人一般不吃乌贼、海参、海蜇、木耳等物。

俄罗斯人的午餐、晚餐不可无汤,且汤汗一般要浓。另外,午餐、晚餐都少不了冷盘。凉菜小吃中,俄罗斯人喜爱吃生西红柿、生洋葱、酸黄瓜、酸白菜等。在整个进餐过程中,吃凉菜的时间较长,约占三分之一。

俄罗斯人喝啤酒用以佐餐,爱饮烈性酒,特别是伏特加,酒量一般都很大。对中国烈性酒也有兴趣,不爱喝葡萄酒。

RUSSIA Happy Holiday

俄 罗 斯 的 快 樂 假 期

January 1 New Year's Day (Новый год)
New Year's Day, also known as the "new years" refers to the current calendar of January 1. But before 1911, "New Year" that is today's "Spring Festival", which is the lunar New Year. New Year's Day is a holiday in many countries of the world or regions, such as China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Japan, Korea and so on. Among them China, Singapore and vacation day as a statutory holiday in Japan on vacation for six days, from years ago, on December 29 until the first of which China, Singapore and the day as a statutory holiday leave, leave Japan for six days, from years ago, December 29 day until the second year on January 3. Custom, the "New Year" major blessing to each other in various ways, greeting cards is one of the main forms.

January 2 New Year's Day (Новый год)

January 7 Orthodox Christmas
Christmas in Taiwan, also known as Christmas, is a traditional festival of the church calendar, it is a celebration day Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus. On Christmas Day, most of the Catholic church will be on Christmas Eve on December 24, that is December 25 Midnight Mass held in the morning, and some Christian churches will hold caroling, and then in December 25 to celebrate Christmas ; while the other major branch of Christianity - Orthodox Christmas celebrations in the annual January 7. According to Catholic Gospels, Jesus is the Bethlehem of the Virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit pregnant after giving birth, Mary and her husband Joseph was on his way to Rome census registration. Jesus was born in a Jewish believer seems to be the Messiah prophesied in the plan to come to realize, because Bethlehem is 约瑟祖 David first family home. Christmas is also the Western world as well as many other areas of public holidays, for example: in Asia, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia and Singapore. However, the exact date of Jesus' birth is disputed.

8 January Orthodox Christmas

February 23 Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества)
Defender of the Fatherland Day (Russian: День защитника Отечества) is an official holiday in Russia, for the annual February 23. February 23 turned out to be the former Soviet Union's Red Army Day. October 25, 1917 October Revolution took place in Tsarist Russia, the establishment of the Soviet regime. During that time is in the First World War, the Soviet government announced the abolition of Russia and the former government of all secret treaties and demanded a truce. Allies rejected a truce. Soviet Republic decided to separate negotiation and Germany. December 15, 1917 and the Allies signed the Brest - Lithuania Khabarovsk treaty, reached a truce agreement. February 18, 1918, the German tore up and about to launch a full-scale attack Soviet Republic, trying to eliminate its first combat, so Eastern calm and seize Ukrainian food, and then to attack the Allies. Germans soon occupied Finland, the Baltic, Ukraine, Don basin, and to advance the capital Petrograd. February 22 told the people of the Soviet regime released book, declared that "the sacred duty of the Russian workers and peasants, we should ...... rushed to defend the Soviet Republic, the fight against the imperialist bourgeoisie German bandit.", Founded the Red Army volunteer registries in various cities, held a mass meeting, set up a number of Red Army troops. February 23, volunteers of the Red Army of the Soviet Republic in the south Petrograd Pskov repel the Germans, defend Petrograd. Since then, the Soviet regime this day as the "Red Army Day." After the Soviet Union collapsed in 1992, this day was renamed as "Defender of the Fatherland Day", still as a statutory holiday, the army general to hold reading and parades and other activities. Russians have come to be seen as the Defender of the Fatherland Day is a "Men's Day", the day women will gift to her husband.
March 8 International Women's Day (Международный женский день)
International Women's Day is a holiday in the annual March 8 to celebrate the important contributions of women in the economic, political and social fields and made ​​great achievements established. At the same time, but also to commemorate the deaths of more than 140 workers in 1911 in New York City Triangle Factory Fire.

May 1 International Labor Day (Праздник весны и труда)

May 9 Victory Day (День Победы)

June 12 Russia Day (День России)

November 4 Solidarity Day (День народного единства)

1月1日 元旦 (Новый год)
  元旦,也被称为“新历年”,是指现行公历的1月1日。但在1911年之前,“元旦”即是今天的“春节”,也就是夏历新年。元旦是世界上很多国家或地区的法定假日,如中国大陆、台湾、香港、澳门、新加坡、日本、韩国等。其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第其中中国、新加坡均作为法定假日休假一天,日本休假六天,从年前的12月29日一直到第二年的1月3日。习俗方面,“元旦”主要以各种方式互相祝福,贺年卡是其中主要形式。
   
1月2日 元旦 (Новый год)
   
1月7日 东正教圣诞节
  圣诞节,在台湾也称作圣诞节,是教会年历的一个传统节日,它是基督徒庆祝耶稣基督诞生的庆祝日。在圣诞节,大部分的天主教教堂都会先在12月24日的平安夜,亦即12月25日凌晨举行子夜弥撒,而一些基督教会则会举行报佳音,然后在12月25日庆祝圣诞节;而基督教的另一大分支——东正教的圣诞节庆祝则在每年的1月7日。根据天主教的福音书,耶稣是伯利恒的圣母玛利亚受圣灵感孕后生下的,玛利亚和丈夫约瑟当时正在去罗马人口普查注册的路上。耶稣的出生在信徒看来是犹太教预言中的默西亚将要到来计划的实现,因为伯利恒是约瑟祖先戴维一族的家。圣诞节也是西方世界以及其它很多地区的公共假日,例如:在亚洲的香港、澳门、马来西亚和新加坡。但耶稣确切的出生日期是存在争议的。
   
1月8日 东正教圣诞节
   
2月23日 祖国保卫者日 (День защитника Отечества)
  祖国保卫者日(俄语:День защитника Отечества)是俄罗斯的法定假日,为每年的2月23日。 2月23日原来是前苏联的红军节。1917年10月25日在沙皇俄国发生了十月革命,成立了苏维埃政权。当时正处于第一次世界大战期间,苏维埃政权公布和废除俄国原政府的一切秘密条约,并要求停战。协约国拒绝停战。苏维埃共和国决定单独和德国谈判。1917年12月15日和同盟国签定了布雷斯特-立陶夫斯克条约,达成停战协议。 1918年2月18日,德国撕毁和约,向苏维埃共和国发动全面进攻,力图首先消灭它的战斗力,使东线保持平静,并夺取乌克兰的粮食,再全力进攻协约国。德军很快占领了芬兰、波罗的海沿岸、乌克兰、顿河流域,并向首都彼得格勒挺进。2月22日苏维埃政权发布告人民书,宣称“俄国工农的神圣义务,就要……奋不顾身地保卫苏维埃共和国、抗击资产阶级帝国主义德国的匪军。”,在各个城市成立红军志愿兵登记处,举行群众大会,成立了许多红军部队。 2月23日,苏维埃共和国的志愿红军在彼得格勒南部普斯科夫击退德军,保卫了彼得格勒。从此,苏维埃政权将这一天定为“红军节”。 1992年苏联解体后,将这一天更名为“祖国保卫者日”,仍然作为法定假日,一般要举行阅军和游行等活动。俄罗斯人已经逐渐将祖国保卫者日看做是一个“男人节”,这一天妇女们会向自己的丈夫赠送礼物。
3月8日 国际妇女节 (Международный женский день)
  国际妇女节是在每年的3月8日为庆祝妇女在经济、政治和社会等领域做出的重要贡献和取得的巨大成就而设立的节日。同时,也是为了纪念在1911年美国纽约三角工厂火灾中丧生的140多名女工。
   
5月1日 国际劳动节 (Праздник весны и труда)
   
5月9日 胜利日 (День Победы)
   
6月12日 俄罗斯日 (День России)
   
11月4日 团结日 (День народного единства)